Zara Case Studies
Importance and Contribution of the Study
The advances in technology and globalisation in general, opened new and very promising avenues of business opportunities not just in an individual’s locale but also abroad. A lot of business-minded individuals from different countries with different nationalities and cultural orientation have and continuously defied the geographic boundaries that exist between continents. This is evident in the growing number of internationally-operating business firms all over the world run by entrepreneurs of varying race and culture. The information man has successfully rebelled against intercontinental borders and the challenge that confronts him the most, deals with how to fit and blend in the new cultural environment in which their businesses are situated.
Companies employ detailed business plans and strategies in order to gain several benefits from its competitors such as increased profits and enhanced customer relations as company objectives. The application of strategies directed towards the achievement of these objectives naturally requires reviews on the internal operations and general environment of the business organization. In today’s fast and technological modern world, the challenge that the Information Man faces is time’s nature of putting things in order and in place in the best and most effective way. Life has changed since the invention of the computer which dictated man to deal with things in the most efficient way possible. In the world of big international business industries where transactions and other business operations are governed by law, cultural differences and mutual trust, overall competitive advantage counts largely as a common entrepreneurial aim.
1.1 Background of the Study
Today’s market is characterized by highly competitive organizations which are all vying for consumer’s loyalty. Firms are faced with the challenge to maintain their own competitive edge to be able to survive and be successful. Strategies are carefully planned and executed to gain the ultimate goal of all: company growth. However, external factors are not the only elements which influence growth. Today most companies find that it impossible to create any kind of sustainable competitive advantage based on product alone. It is common knowledge that every one of the successful companies sought and found a precise understanding of how it could create a customer-centered competitive advantage.
Competition is an important factor to consider before entering a business. Companies should have successful competitive strategies to be able attract, retain and grow customers. However, before the company can plan and execute these strategies, it should be able to recognize its sources of competitive advantage which can be differentiated through products, services, channels, people and image (Kotler & Armstrong, 2001).
Amancio Ortega Gaona, the founder of Inditex Group, thought that consumers would regard clothes as a perishable commodity just like yogurt, bread or fish to be consumed quickly, rather than stored in cupboards, and he has gone about building a retail business that provides “freshly baked clothes” (Dutta, 2002). ZARA is one of the Inditex Group’s flagship brand that offers women’s, men’s and children’s fashion. The first ZARA shop was opened in 1975 in Spain after its Initial Public Offering in May 2001. Within 12 months, its stock price increased by nearly 50% and sales revenue has been increasing rapidly since then. In 2006, there are over 2,900 ZARA outlets and become a well-known brand all over the world (inditex.com). The success has been possible as ZARA understand its source of competitive advantage.
1.2 Research Objectives
Along with the changing business world, customers change as well, becoming more demanding and knowledgeable than before. The consumers of mass communication messages today are active and critical in the simple choices they make. As such, the mere purchase of everyday necessities has proved to be crucial in analyzing the consumer market at present. In turn, company management had shifted their focus on their clients or customers so as to stay successfully in business. The changing world has then placed much emphasis on the importance of communication for effective marketing. This transition meant that organizations have to completely reformulate their conventional business aims and purposes from being process-focused to customer-centered (Lowenstein, 1997).
As ZARA is a global apparel chain shop, it competes with the other strong international brand too, such as The Gap (U.S.), Hennes & Mauritz (Sweden), and Benetton (Italy). However, all three had relatively narrower vertical scope than ZARA, which owned much of its production and most of its stores. Being in fashionable and creative offering clothing lines at low prices enabled ZARA to take full advantage in the international fashion industry to sustain its competitive edge in the market. In this regard, an in-depth case study investigating the business operations of ZARA will provide data and information on competitive and strategic business management as a benchmark of company success in the international fashion industry. Hence, the research objective for the completion of this case study aims to investigate the success factors that characterize ZARA’s business model and its winning elements as a business entity in the international fashion industry.
1.3 Importance and Contribution of the Study
Multi-business organizations and firms are constantly facing pressures brought about the varying unpredictable factors that hinder efficient and effective business operations. This results to graver responsibilities faced by the business executives as board of directors; capital markets and shareholders push for effective and powerful corporate strategies. The competitive business environment within particular industries intensifies the need of business organizations to diversify the operation systems of the company recognizing the importance of the conglomeration of assets, skills, and capabilities of the available resources that the company has in order to be successful. Since the business environments are fast becoming more and more complex added to the fact that it changes rapidly and dynamically, businesses need to concentrate on a few key elements that are most important to their organizations survival. Thus, it is not surprising the critical success factors keep the organizations from straying too far with external issues not relevant to their company’s success.
In this light, the success of the business organization entails detailed understanding and examination of political, economic, social, technological and legal factors that influence the growth and continuous operations of the company. Studying the important consideration relevant to the organization to serve the purpose and objectives of the company will determine its success. Consequently, decision-makers of the company should be sensitive of the general trends and changes that are taking place in their industry. This will include efforts to maximize the opportunities available while reducing the risks that confront the business organization. Hence, this research study was designed to serve as a benchmark study to succeeding students and practitioners in the business environment providing data and information that will yield productive principles and ideas for the benefit of the international fashion industry and other existing business industries.
1.4 Content Outline
The remainder of the research paper constitute topics and discusiion that are relvant to the designed research objective. The litereture review contains detailed data and information on significantly related studies that have been undertaken and the methodology as the means of providing reliable and valid results and findings. The later parts of the research paper present the collected, anlyzed and interpreted primaey data and information through the utilization of the methodology. Summary and conclusions are likewise provided to complete the research activity. The entirety of the research paper is detailed as follows:
- Literature Review
- Industrial/Organizational View
- PEST Analysis
- Porter’s Five Forces Model
- Value-based View
- Value Chain Analysis
- Key Industrial Sucess Factors
- International Fashion Apparel Industry
- SWOT Analysis
- Chapter Overview
- Data Analysis
- Literature Review
In this age of globalization and information technology, deciding which brand to choose can be a problem. Competition is evident and intense, and the marketing and management divisions of corporations are surely giving everything they can to establish their brands. Competition forces certain brand names to become stronger than others because of product loyalty and name recognition. As such, all types of communication became more involved in marketing communications, including literature, training, advertising, mail, telephone, product promotions and other contact relevant to marketing communication (Goldberg & McCalley, 1992). Moreover, consumers tend to buy what is already familiar to them (Mittelhauser, 1997). A fine and well-advertised brand might have a competitive edge from a lesser exposed brand name. But then, a lesser known brand can also have an edge over price, given that they cost less than known brands (Kim et al, 2002).
2.1 Industrial/Organizational View
Most companies find it impossible to create any kind of sustainable competitive advantage based on product alone. It is common knowledge that every one of the successful companies sought and found a precise understanding of how it could create a customer-centered competitive advantage. Hessan & Whitely (1996) emphasized the idea to take advantage of the competitive situation not just by being better in how that product gets sold, serviced, and marketed at the customer interface. It requires that companies create breakthroughs in how they interact with customers, and design a way of interacting that makes an indelible impression on customers, one that so utterly distinguishes them from others that it becomes a brand in itself.
Meanwhile, understanding the dynamics of the competitors in the industry helps assess the potential opportunities of every business venture by differentiating the similar products or services offered by the company against other business organizations. According to David (2003), there are at least four types of resources which the company can use to achieve its objectives: financial, tangible, human and technological resources. As such, it is necessary to realistically assess potential levels of profitability, opportunity and risk based on five key factors within an industry so as to determine the long-term profitability of a market or market segment.
2.1.1 PEST Analysis. Business administration and management characterizes the process of leading and directing the systems within an organization by exhausting available resources extensively so as to achieve the objectives of the business operation. It most of the time includes the conceptualization of business plans and monitoring its execution for assessment and evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of the business transactions. Making a business successful in a particular setting demands crucial and detailed studies and examination of the factors that will generate the best results that will serve the aims and objectives of the company. Hence, a shift of focus and interest from the local market to the international setting has demanded innovation not just in corporate leadership as new information, forms of communication, and technology (Kim & Weaver, 2000).
- Socio-Cultural. Customer satisfaction refers to the consumer’s positive subjective evaluation of the outcomes and experiences associated with using or consuming the product or service. It refers to either a discrete, time-limited event or the entire time the service or product is experienced (Duffy & Kechand, 1998). Satisfaction occurs when the product has been able to meet or exceed the conceived expectations that the customer has (Padilla, 1996). Furthermore, customer satisfaction may also be considered as the measure of the high degree of quality of the product (Jacobs et al., 1998). Crosby and colleagues (2003) deemed that once a product or service has been delivered or sold, its quality is believed to have been established.
Customer satisfaction is the primary aim of marketing. Most enterprises ensure the best possible chance of attaining long-term stability and competitive standing through comptehensive customer analysis and implementation of marketing communication plans. Marketing makes the basic assumption that customer satisfaction should be the primary aim of the business. Such satisfaction can be achieved and sustained through the provision of competitive products or services, at competitive prices (Spreng, MacKenzie & Olshavsky, 1996). It should focus on every aspect of marketing, not only on promotion and sales techniques, to persuade customers to buy but also on target market, marketing mix and the effective marketing strategy (Kotler & Armstrong, 2001) because successful marketing results in stronger products, happier customers, and bigger profits.
2.1.2 Porter’s Five Forces Model. The competitive business environment within particularistic industries intensifies the need of business organizations to diversify the operation systems of the company recognizing the importance of the conglomeration of assets, skills, and capabilities of the available resources that the company has in order to be successful. All these will be realized through the intervention of the corporate parent organization to increase the value of its subsidiary businesses in the international market environment (Jayne & Dipboye, 2004). In this light, owners of big business organizations operating in a competitive business environment should be in constant look out with its competitors and the overall status and events in the industry. Taking advantage of the opportunities and intensifying the strengths while minimizing the risks and weaknesses of a business firm greatly helps in predicting the success in business enterprise (Goshal, 1997).
Porter’s Five Forces Model highlights the interplay between the suppliers, buyers, new entrants, substitutes, and industry competitors in order for a business entity to gain competitive advantage (Porter, 1989).
- Suppliers. An organization that offers products as well as services also depends on suppliers that deliver the company’s raw materials. This condition leads to the buyer-supplier relationships within different industries. Such relationship is directly influence by the changes in the supply and demand variables based on the existing needs of the consumer population (Lee & Billinton, 1995; Katsikeas, Schlegelmilch & Skarmeas, 2002). The influence of the supplier is defined by its ability to dictate price and influence availability of materials. Other strengths of the supplier include their ability to (a) increase prices without suffering from a decrease in volume, (b) reduce the quantity supplied, (c) organize in a formal or informal manner, (d) compete in an environment with relatively few substitutes, (e) provide a product/material that is a critical part of the end product or service, (f) impose switching costs on their customers when they depart, and (g) integrate downstream by purchasing or controlling the distribution channels (Berry et al, 1998; Degraeve & Roodhooft, 1999;Anderson & Katz, 1998).
- Buyers. The power of buyers describes the impact customers have on an industry. When buyer power is strong, the relationship to the producing industry becomes closer to market conditions wherein the buyer has the most influence in determining the price (Owens et al, 1998; Bowman, 1999). As such the bargaining power of buyers increases when they have the ability to (a) make agreements with other companies providing similar products and services, (b) purchase a product that represents a significant fraction of the expenses incurred by the company, (c) purchase of a product that is undifferentiated, (d) incur low changes in costs when they change vendors, (e) be price sensitive by bearing in mind the options available, and (f) integration to purchase the goods of the suppliers (Baldwin et al, 2002; Bowers, Martin & Luker, 1990).
- New Entrants and Barriers of Entry. The possibility of new companies entering the industry influences the pace of the competition. Thus, the key is to evaluate the methods of entry and exit for a new player to the industry. Although any company should be able to enter and exit the sector, each industry presents different levels of difficulty influenced by economics. These unique characteristics of the each industry are referred to as barriers to entry which may come from different aspects of the business ranging from supplies to technology. They seek to reduce the rate of entry of new entrants which leads to maintenance of a level of profits for the existing players (Porter, 1989).
- Substitutes. “Substitute products” as those that are available in other industries that meet an identical or similar need for the end user. As more substitutes become available and affordable, the demand becomes more elastic since customers have more alternatives. The treat of substitutes often impacts price-based competition since substitute products may limit the ability of firms within an industry to raise prices and improve margins. Other concerns in assessing the threat of substitutes include the presence of new technologies that can contribute to competition though more diverse and economical substitute products and services. A segment is unattractive when there are actual or potential substitutes for a product (Porter, 1989).
- Industry Competitors. A considerable number of companies have developed into an essential part of the period of global competition, increasing development, improved business paradigms, and corporate reorganization. The continuing transformation from the traditional industrial framework with its hierarchical companies to a worldwide, knowledge-founded financial system and intelligent corporations necessitates business management to realign and relocate its strategies (Mcmenamin, 1999). Along with the intense marketing nowadays, firms are faced with the challenge to maintain their own competitive edge to be able to survive and be successful. Strategies are carefully planned and executed to gain the ultimate goal of all: company growth (Karp & Schlessinger, 2002).
Figure 1. Porter’s Five Forces Model
2.2 Value-Based View
2.2.1 Value Chain Analysis
2.3 Key Industry Success Factors
One of the core characteristics of a successful organization is focus. Since the business environments are fast becoming more and more complex added to the fact that it changes rapidly and dynamically, businesses need to concentrate on a few key elements that are most important to their organizations survival. Thus, it is not surprising the critical success factors keep the organizations from straying too far with external issues not relevant to their company’s success. There significant success factors that can determine and predict the positive outcomes and benefits of the organization strategic options. This is regardless of the scope of the operations and business transactions of the (local or international) of the organization. Such success factors are the significant considerations of variables that can directly and indirectly influence the growth and development of the company.
Critical success factors (CSFs) in business, are the limited number of areas in which results, if they are satisfactory can ensure that successful competitive advantage for the company (Thierauf 2001). Determining these factors is an old concept in business because there were great leaders throughout history who have identified and addressed key factors to achieve their successes. There is no one definition of CSF but it is considered that these are the areas which the company needs to concentrate on to flourish. Therefore, the activities should be carefully monitored and guided by the management.
Chung (1987) defined critical success factors as managerial factors that create a competitive edge for a company in its respective industry. There is no specific process in identifying and executing critical success factors in strategic management planning. This is the reason whyThierauf (2001) asserts that different companies which have similar structure can conduct its market entry forming different strategies which lead to the development of various critical factors. As the primary means for an organization to achieve its strategy, critical success factors must take into account the differences in the environment and organization that exists.
2.3.1 International Fashion Apparel Industry. Azuma and Fernie (2003) stated that fashion is an aesthetic expression that aims to communicate notions, subtleties, and therefore, as soon as an aesthetic order comes to be generally perceived as a code, then works of art tend to move beyond this code while exploring its possible mutations and extensions. The creative aspect of fashion in general cultivates the numerous ways of expressing oneself through other products available in the market. These include accessories and jewelries, bags, shoes, parlors and salons. Furthermore, fashion is believed to be a cyclical reflection of social, cultural, and environmental characteristics that are unique to a certain point of time in a particular geographical setting, in addition to playing a crucial role in complementing one’s self-image. As such, the never-ending and ever-increasing possibilities of portraying an individual’s self-image through other products available in other mentioned industries pose disadvantages as well as challenge in the entire clothing line of the fashion industry.
In terms of fashion retailing, Birtwistle and Freathy (1998) stated that its market has gained criticism for a lack of differentiation, possibly due to greater degrees of market concentration and the standardization of the fashion retail offer across stores and regions. With the addition of new technological developments, fashion retailers face both a differentiation dilemma and a challenge in maintaining any long-term advantage over their competitors. Competitive advantage is needed, and being unique and persuasive are important in order to attract the attention of customers and create positive consumer behavior that would benefit the company. Davies (1992) stated that four things are needed to be considered in order for retail stores or fashion brands to achieve competitive advantage. They are: the ability to differentiate; command a price premium; have a separate existence to the corporation; and provide a form of psychic value to customers. Similarly, these are the significant considerations made by new fashion retail stores in entering the fashion industry market.
2.4 SWOT Analysis
The success of the business organization entails detailed understanding and examination of political, social and economic factors that influence the growth and continuous operations of the company. Studying the important consideration relevant to the organization to serve the purpose and objectives of the company will determine its success. Consequently, decision-makers of the company should be sensitive of the general trends and changes that are taking place in their industry. This will include efforts to maximize the opportunities available while reducing the risks that confront the business organization.
In order to run a good business, an organization has to understand itself entirely. What are the advantages it enjoys to benefit to the organization, or what are the disadvantages it faces to harm to the organization. However, internal analysis is not enough to run a good business, but also an external analysis. It is important for an organization because the world is always changing, it has to catch up the trend and provide what the market need. Understand the opportunity in the market and stick to it. And recognize the threat in the market as well, in order to avoid and reduce something unwanted.
As a result, SWOT analysis should be used as a tool to evaluate the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats in an organization.
As stated by Cornelisse (2004), the result of the SWOT analysis should be a thorough understanding of the organization’s status, of its standing with important groups in its environment and of the factors in the environment that may impinge upon it. Bean and Hussey (1997) stated that SWOT analysis is used to analyze the current position of the organization. Also the result of SWOT should be concerned when developing the business plan. Both Cornelissen (2004) and Bean and Hussey (1997)thought that in order to make SWOT to be more valuable, it should be carried out in an objective manner and cover all aspects of the organization.
Truitt (2002) said that the organization’s current capabilities can be assessed by SWOT analysis and evaluate whether it meet the goals and the mission of the business or not. According to Nijssen and Frambach (2001), they propose using SWOT analysis to match the core competencies of a company with the trends in its environment that represent opportunities to customer value creation and eroding forces of current value and underlying competencies. And the result of SWOT analysis can help to effectively make the decisions regarding the company’s future market strategy. However, both Truitt (2002) and Nijssen and Frambach (2001) criticized that SWOT approach is inadequate because of several reasons: 1) Long lists of factors evaluated 2) Unclear labeling or wording of factors identified 3) No priorities for items 4) Not attempt to show evidence to prove the points that were raised.
3.1 Chapter Overview
The methodology provides information on the description of the methods and procedures that were conceptualized and constructed in order to obtain the needed data and information that will be most useful to the study. Details on how the accumulated data will be analyzed and interpreted as well as how the conclusion will be drawn is discussed in full extent in this section. This provides justification of the means in which the study will be accomplished and at the same time helps in giving purpose and strength to the validity and reliability of the collected information that makes this particular research practice truthful and analytic. Specifically, this research methodology will cover the following discussions: the methods used in accomplishing the study, the sampling technique utilized, the statistical treatment used, the limitations of the collected data, and the logical and systematic data presentation and analysis.
The use of stratified random sampling technique was grounded on the need to ensure the represenativeness of the respondents in the survey method. This particular sampling technique ensures the validity and reliability of the data based on the number or quantity of the respondents who filled out the survey questionnaires. Stratified random sampling technique operates by classifying the target population into group classifications as set by the researcher. The samples are chosen through several selection procedures that usually take several stages depending on the complexity of the characteristics of the possible respondents and the interest of the researcher (Trochim, 2001).
Since there is a possibility that several of the accomplished questionnaires will not pass the standards of validity set by the researcher, 5 other individuals who have the same characteristics as that of the defined target samples of the study will also asked to accomplish the questionnaire as reserved samples. Such incidents include half-finished survey form, inconsistent answers, untruthful information and forms of the respondent who did not answer the questionnaire seriously. Upon the completion of the required number of respondents for the survey method, the valid questionnaires will still be included in the presentation and analysis of the findings and results of the study.
Basically, Guilford and Fruchter (1973) initiated that it is advisable to use the Slovin’s formula in choosing sample sizes. Thus, the sample size of the population in this paper was determined by Slovin’s formula. The formula of Slovin is given as follows:
n = a sample size
N= population size
e= desired margin of error (percent allowance for non-precision because of the use of the sample instead of the population).
This study will operate under the quantitative paradigm wherein the survey method will be utilized in order to elicit the relevant information needed to complete research (Frankfort-Nachmias & Nachmias, 1992). Besides, quantitative research plainly and distinctively specifies both the independent and the dependent variables under investigation (Matveev, 2002). It also follows resolutely the original set of research goals, arriving at more objective conclusions, determining the issues of causality and eliminates or minimises subjectivity of judgment (Kealey & Protheroe, 1996).
The survey method was implemented in three successive data collection procedures. These included the pretest of the questionnaire, the actual survey, and the back-checking after the analysis of the data. The pretest of the survey was necessary in order to identify possible shortcomings of the instrument that may hinder the efficient collection of valid and reliable data. On the other hand, the back-checking that was implemented to provide assurance that the results of the analysis are consistent with that of the available information and facts in the field. The researcher gathered secondary data and collate published studies from different local and foreign universities and articles from business journals. This research project was accomplished by conducting a questionnaire survey using a sample of at least 100 respondents in which inferential statistics was used in organizing and summarizing the findings of the study.
Moreover, the use of survey is efficient since copies of the questionnaire could reach a considerable number of respondents through efficient personal distribution. It will serve as an effective and efficient research tool to elicit and exhaust the information that the respondents perceive regarding the topic of the research project at hand. The questions included in the questionnaire are composed mostly of close-ended queries for easy manipulation of the data during analysis and interpretation. The respondents were asked to fill out the self-administered questionnaires until such time that the researcher was able to complete the number of samples for the study. The researcher will tally, score and tabulate all the responses in the provided questionnaires for the subsequent presentation, analysis and interpretation of the data that were accumulated. Responses from the interview as well as information from secondary resources will be used to support the calculated values.
For the quantitative data analysis of the variables of the study, descriptive statistics were primarily used so as to present descriptions in manageable forms. As such, univariate analysis which involves the evaluation of different cases of a specific variable for a specific period of time (Lane, 2003) was incorporated through statistical tools in the form of the frequency distribution. The measures of central tendency: (a) mean, (b) median, and (c) mode is an estimate of the “center” of a distribution of values. It is the distribution or summary of the number of occurrence of individual values or ranges of values for a variable (Price, 2000). To compute the mean all the values are added up and divide by the number of values. The median is the score found at the exact middle of the set of values while the mode is the most frequently occurring value in the set of scores (Trochim, 2002).
The analysis of the quantitative data was composed of the description of the variables by presenting the frequencies and mean averages of each. Correlations among the variables were likewise investigated and determined. The answers of the respondents will be first encoded and subsequent tests will be applied to produce quantitative and descriptive data used to complete the research project. Frequency values and percentages of the answers of the respondents compose the findings and results of the study.
Percentage – to determine the magnitude of the responses to the questionnaire
% = ——– x 100 ; n – number of responses
N N – total number of respondents
The statistical analysis was conducted using Microsoft Excel where the quantitative data are tabulated, graphed and evaluated. The relationships of the variables were then analyzed and collated with other findings of the study. The extent and magnitude of the relationship between variables were presented for the systematic analysis of the collected information. The secondary data that were gathered were likewise used to compare and contrast for consistencies among all the related sources that were cited which likewise dealt with the topic and interest of this particular research study.
Conceptualization of the whole research study will prove some difficulties in constructing an effective questionnaire that will not tire the respondents yet has the ability to exhaust all the needed information from the participants for the completion of the project. The potential and empirical obstacles will include the difficulties in the data gathering procedures and the subsequent circumstances that every researcher face in the field such as complete participation of the subjects and the problems regarding figures of authority who have the power and prerogative to hold information that will be of great relevance for the success of the study.
Meanwhile, sampling procedures will be a great challenge to the researcher in relation to the representativeness of the selected individuals who will take part in the data collection procedures. Sometimes a few of the selected participants of the study will decline the involvement in the research project. There are also respondents who will inquire on the specifics of the investigation which the researcher can not divulge since it could spoil the data that the participant will share in the collection of the information.
Ensuring the validity of the accumulated data is considered to be the most crucial stage of the research endeavor. Since a methodology is always employed in the service of a research question, validation of the inferences made on the basis of data from one analytic approach demands the use of multiple sources of information through validation study built into the design (Kaplan & Duchon, 1998; Foss & Ellefsen, 2002;Mingers, 2001). Planning the gathering period while keeping in mind the possible constraints that could be encountered in the field as well as the time available to complete the investigation will prepare the researcher in the further execution of the research project.
3.6 Data Analysis
The research variables were primarily analyzed in order to provide description on the factors that concerns the topic of the study. The variables of the study imply quantitative research wherein the data, situations, or other facts collected will be explained or correlated with other data. Basically, this research based its findings through quantitative research methods because this permits a flexible and iterative approach. Through the survey method, qualitative elements that do not have standard measures such as behaviour, attitudes, opinions, and beliefs are analyzed. As such, the information that the informants of the study shared to the researcher will be accordingly examined, analyzed and interpreted to answer the research questions presented.
Generally, responses to a questionnaire are objectified and standardised and these make tabulation easy. But more importantly, the respondents’ replies are of their own free will because there is no interviewer to influence them. This is one way to avoid biases, particularly the interviewers’ bias. The researcher used graph and charts for data presentation. Tables, on the other hand, are the summary numbers and figures indicated in rows and columns normally used to present quantitative data and results of the statistical tests. Tables facilitated the systematic presentation of all the collected data and information from the survey method. Each table was provided with proper title, number, caption, text and explanation that will comprise most of the results and findings section of the research study.
The triangulation research strategy in which the use of multiple sources to enhance the rigor of the research (Robson, 2002) helps in the in-depth case analysis of the paper. Stake (1995) stated that the protocols that are used to ensure accuracy and alternative explanations are called triangulation. The need for triangulation arises from the ethical need to confirm the validity of the processes. In case studies, this could be done by using multiple sources of data (Yin, 1984).
The data and information gathered in using the secondary data analysis were used to support and rebut the claims of the study wherein critical examination and analysis of the findings were compared and contrasted with each other. The secondary data were critically analyzed based on the credibility of the authors, the methods used and the sampling procedures made in order to accomplish the said previous research studies. Secondary data analysis is composed of the reviews of references and sources in this study to either support or rebut the claims and findings of this particular research endeavor. This enabled the researcher to compare and contrast the results that were accumulated by other researchers who investigated the same topic of research. These include published and available unpublished research studies, case studies, journal articles, and books that have concerned on the investigation and analysis of different concepts, variables and factors that relate to the principal idea of the study’s investigation.