POSIX Permissions and Stateful Firewalls Solution

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Description

Contents

  1. Overview

  2. Required Reading

    1. POSIX Permissions

    2. Criticisms

    3. sudo and Alternatives

    4. Software Tools

      1. adduser, chfn, passwd

      2. addgroup

      3. usermod

      4. chown, chgrp

      5. chmod

    5. Firewalls

    6. Policy Design

    7. Firewall and Network Testing Tools

      1. iptables

      2. nmap

      3. ifconfig

      4. telnet

      5. netcat

  3. Introduction

  4. Assignment Instructions

    1. Setup

      1. Saving your work

      2. Restoring your work

    2. Tasks

      1. Home Directory Security

      2. The Ballot Box

      3. The TPS Reports Directory

      4. sudo Problems

      5. Firewall Configuration

    3. Tips and Tricks

      1. Resolving ambiguities

      2. Using environment variables

      3. Testing your firewall

    4. What Can Go Wrong

  5. Submission Instructions

Overview

The purpose of this exercise is to introduce you to filesystem and network access control schemes and the “principle of least privilege” through the use of POSIX filesystem permissions and iptables firewalls.

After this exercise, you will:

  1. understand the POSIX permissions structure including SUID and SGID bits

  1. understand the essence of the sudo utility and how to configure and use it securely.

  2. be able to apply that knowledge to configure permissions in multiple scenarios, such as:

    1. shared system directories

    1. user home directories and private directories

    2. privileged system directories

    3. unprivileged temporary directories

    4. editing important configuration files

    5. restarting system processes

    6. potential privilege escalation problems

  1. understand the basics of stateful firewalls

  2. be able to apply that knowledge to configure a basic firewall in Linux using iptables.

Required Reading

POSIX Permissions

The Portable Operating System Interface, or POSIX, is IEEE standards family IEEE 1003.1 and represents an attempt to formalize the API for variants of the Unix operating system. POSIX specifies standards for the kernel APIs (including many internal functions like permissions, threads, networking, and interprocess communication), commands, required utilities and user-level APIs (including many utilities and scripting tools like awk, echo, ed, sh, vi, basic I/O, and more), and a conformance test that can be run on many platforms. POSIX is very widely disseminated and has been in use for almost 20 years, but is a closed standard (i.e. proprietary). As a result, it is expensive to be certified; this has resulted in many free operating systems such as FreeBSD and Linux being substantially compliant but not officially able to use the moniker “POSIX Compliant”. An alternative to POSIX is the Single UNIX Specification, developed by the Austin Group. Unfortunately, it is also proprietary and expensive.

The expense has not been prohibitive for motivated commercial vendors however, and POSIX has been extremely influential in coalescing and standardizing those elements that are characteristically UNIX-like. Furthermore, POSIX is a standard that influences software design and operating system implementations in seemingly unlikely places — for example, Windows NT and its derivatives (2000, XP, and beyond) can be “POSIX compliant” with the addition of software packages and the enabling of certain features. This broad influence — existing before the public explosion of the Internet — has helped to make software and systems similar in fundamental ways. This, in turn, simplifies many portability and interoperability problems.

One of the enduring legacies of Bell Labs UNIX and the POSIX standard are traditional Unix file system permissions, which are a simple system of permissions stored in the file system and and kernel and evaluated to mediate access to system resources. Additionally, since devices are files in Unix, file system permissions also mediate control over many aspects of the operating system.

In most Unix and Unix-like operating systems, the permission system is extremely simple. Each file has read, write, and execute permissions set for each of three groups of users called “access classes”. The three classes are user (owner), group, and other; each access class represents one or more users in the following way:

Users each have unique user identifiers (userids or UIDs, listed in /etc/passwd) that only they control.

Groups are arbitrary collections of users. Each group has its own group identifier (groupid or GID, defined in /etc/group). Often, every user on the system has a personal group used for sharing data with a limited set of other users.

Example: the group class cdrom usually contains a list of all users granted permission to access the system’s CD-rom drive.

Example: the user sonny has a group sonny by default; the user cher can be added as a member of group sonny so that they can share resources between themselves but no one else.

Finally, the membership of the other class for each file is dependent on the user and members of the group class — the other class does not represent “all users!” Specifically, the other class represents “everyone that is not the user (owner) of the file and or a member of the file’s group class.” This fact allows us to express more meaningful permissions by strictly dividing all system users into three non-overlapping sets.

A more precise way of stating this is to say that other represents the the list of all users on the system, minus the union of the user and group classes.

Example: There are three users on a system: sonny, cher, and donovan. sonny owns a file whose group access class is set to the group sonny, which contains the user cher. The other class consists only of donovan, because he is not the owner nor in the group sonny.

Each access class is encoded by 3 bits. Each bit present grants an additional permission from the set read, write, and execute. When you list files in long form (with the option -l), you will see the permissions written out in the leftmost column as a bitstring with the letters r, w, and x in the order user, group, and other:

Here’s what it looks like “in the wild”:

$ ls -alh

1

pahp

console

18K

May 16

2006

gpl.txt

-rw-r–r–

drwx——

5

pahp

console

512

May 21

2006

john-1.7.2/

lrwxrwxrwx

1

pahp

console

25

Sep 13 20:45

labs -> /proj/some/link/

-rwxr

–r–

1

pahp

console

171

Sep 9

09:18

loadimage.sh*

drwxrwxrwx

1

pahp

console

512

Sep 13

20:45

worldwriteable/

^ ^

^ ^—

other permissions

| |

‘——-

group

permissions

| ‘———-

user permissions

‘————

file type: d=directory, l=symbolic link, – means regular file

Here’s an example bitstring split into components:

d

rwx

rwx

rwx

type

user

group

other

In the above example, the owner of the file gpl.txt has read and write permission because the owner part of the bitstring is set to rw-. The owner (pahp) cannot execute this file, but that doesn’t matter because it’s just a text file. The group class console can read the file, as can the members of the other class — everyone else.

The directory john-1.7.2 is only accessible by the owner and nobody else. Notice the d in the first place; this means that the file is a directory.

The file labs is a “symbolic link” (sometimes called “soft link”) to the directory /proj/some/link/. Symbolic links are a special kind of file that is a pointer to a disk location (a “pathname” which may or may not exist). Permissions on symbolic links do not work as their lrwxrwxrwx permissions might lead you believe.

In addition to the 9 bits required to store the user, group, and other permissions of a file, there are three kinds of “additional permissions” that are rarely used but are extremely important to understand. The additional permissions are known as the setuid bit, setgid bit, and sticky bit. Each special bit has a different function depending on where it is used:

When the the special bits are used on regular files:

The setuid bit on an executable file means that the file will run as the userid of the file’s owner as opposed to the userid of the user executing the file. This is done to allow users to perform tasks that temporarily require the user to be someone else, such as changing passwords or restarting a service. Any program with the UID bit set must be carefully written so as to block all misuse. Innumerable vulnerabilities have stemmed from setuid root programs with security holes that allowed users to execute other commands as root.

The setgid bit on an executable file is like the setuid bit, except that the process gains the effective user of the file’s group, not its owner or the user executing the file.

The “sticky bit” was used in the olden days to tell the kernel to keep an executable’s image in memory so that it would not have to be reloaded from disk. This was commonly done with programs such as editors that were used regularly but had a significant load time. Modern systems use the “sticky bit” for other uses.

When the special bits are used on directories, they have different meanings altogether. Search online to discover

what those meanings are on Linux systems.

Every file has permissions of some kind set for the each of the three classes, using the three types of basic permissions: read, write, and execute (and the three special bits). These permissions have a default value (based on the system umask) when the file is created. Permissions can be changed with command line utilities such as chmod and chown, which are discussed later in this document.

These permissions are fairly self explanatory when applied to files, but when applied to directories their meanings are not always intuitive. In particular, permissions set on a directory do not always apply to that directory’s contents, and the concepts of “read”, “write”, and “execute” as they pertain to directories is not obvious. (It helps to think of a directory as a file which contains links to other files, rather than as a nested series of containers — experiment on DETER to determine how they really interact!)

Furthermore, while the special bits are commonly overlooked, they have important meanings with incredible significance in terms of security. You are encouraged to play with these permissions and read other materials in order to fully understand how they are interpreted.

Criticisms

Traditional Unix permissions date back to the early 1970s. While simple and inexpensive to implement and evaluate, they have long been criticized for being out of date and woefully inexpressive compared to the power of other access control systems. Other systems (such as Microsoft Windows and other ACL models for Unix) have more than three access groups, nested groups, explicit deny lists, the ability to specify write permissions for changing, creating, and deleting (with Unix permissions they are largely the same), the ability to consider arbitrary state in evaluating the ACLs (such as time of day, network address, etc.), the ability to make files invisible to unprivileged users, and many other features that traditional Unix permissions lack.

Another important and oft-criticized fact is that Unix permissions do not exactly reflect the current state of the permissions configuration on the system. For example, while Unix checks the file permissions at the moment a file is opened, it only checks those permissions once for each open system call. This means that the permissions are only tested when you first open the file for reading, writing, or executing, not each time you access or modify the file’s contents via an open file descriptor. If a user opens a file, and immediately thereafter all permissions on that file for that user are removed, the user with the open file descriptor will still have access to the resource according to the permissions set when the file was opened, even if the current permissions deny reading, writing, or execution.

Furthermore, the traditional Unix permissions and authentication system assigns group membership and other credentials at login time and never checks them again — this means that system password, login permission, group membership details in /etc/group and other details changed after you log in are not reflected in your processes until you log out and log back in or the process with those credentials is restarted. For example, this means that any change to a user group is fully applied only when all affected processes have been restarted. Another example is that if an attacker steals a password and logs in to a system before that account is disabled or the password is changed, the attacker will still have that level of authentication until he or she logs out.

This is an example of a time-of-check vs. time-of-use (TOCTOU) problem.

These design decisions were made to limit the space occupied by and CPU cycles spent evaluating system permissions. As long as the semantics of the system (including the above criticisms) are fully understood, it can be an effective, acceptably secure solution for many purposes. In fact, in some ways, its simplicity and even naivete make it more transparent and easily understandable when compared to more complex systems. For these and many other reasons, the traditional Unix file permissions are still in wide use, over 40 years after their initial deployment.

sudo and Alternatives

Some applications simply require stronger guarantees, finer granularity, or other features that the traditional permissions cannot express. For those applications, users have many alternatives. sudo is one simple extension to traditional Unix permissions that has become very popular.

sudo is a setuid root application with its own ACL (stored in /etc/sudoers) that specifies, with fine granularity, tasks that users and groups can perform as root. For example, sudo could be used to allow a user to act as root in order to kill processes with a specific name. The user would otherwise have no additional privileges. This is an example of a perfect use for setuid root programs — granting strongly-constrained privileges to unprivileged users.

However, sudo is a double edged sword. On the one hand, it greatly enhances the expressiveness of Unix permissions without actually changing the permissions system. On the other hand, if improperly configured, it offers easy access to root. For more information on sudo and the sudoers ACL format, please see the manpages for sudo and sudoers (the configuration file), or other sudo-related material online (in particular regarding sudo exploits).

Beyond sudo, two broader and more revolutionary alternatives for Linux permissions include SELinux and grsecurity, while other options exist including LDAP, Novell eDirectory, and other permissions systems for other operating systems. (We won’t be using any of these.)

Software Tools

adduser, chfn, passwd: add users to a system

adduser is the tool available for adding users to the system. To create a new user, execute:

$ adduser username

adduser will copy files from the /etc/skel directory to become the new homedir of the new user in the /home/ directory. You can specify a different home directory or automatically add the new user to groups; those options can be found in the adduser manpage.

adduser does not set any finger information for the user (this is not strictly necessary anyway), but the tool chfn will do that:

$ sudo chfn jimbo

Changing finger information for jimbo.

Name []: …

By default, the user is created with a “locked out” account with no password set. To set the password, use the command passwd:

$ sudo passwd jimbo

Changing password for user jimbo.

New Unix password:

Retype new Unix password:

passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

passwd will complain if it doesn’t like the password you enter, but will accept anything with enough prodding.

Once an account is created, you can log into it in a number of ways:

  1. If logged in to the system where you created the account, you can execute ssh newuser@localhost to reconnect locally as the new user with the new password.

  2. If local, you can also use the su command su newuser to change to that user. This does not always update

all access credentials, however. This method can also be used to become root by entering sudo su –.

3. If logged in to users.deterlab.net, you can ssh to the node as the new user.

groupadd: add groups to a system

groupadd adds a new group to the system with a unique ID (by default). Example:

$ groupadd newgroup

See man groupadd for more information.

usermod: modify a user

usermod can be used to modify many details of a preexisting user account. For more information, see man usermod.

chown, chgrp: change ownership of a file

chown stands for change ownership and is (unsurprisingly) used to change the owner and group of a file.

The syntax is very simple. To change the owner of a file, execute:

$ chown newowner filename

To change the owner and group classes of a file, execute:

$ chown newowner:newgroup filename

chgrp stands for change group and works very similarly to chown. To change the group of a file, execute:

$ chgrp newgroup filename

Recursive and other options exist; see man chown or man chgrp for more information.

chmod: change the mode of a file

chmod stands for change mode and is used to change the permissions mode of a file. Earlier, we discussed how the POSIX ACL has three access classes. User (or owner), group, and other (or world). The permissions mode for each access class can be changed by the chmod command.

There are two ways to use chmod; one is an absolute numeric mode and the other is a symbolic mode.

chmod: absolute — setting the permissions explicitly

In the absolute mode, chmod takes a file mode in 3 or 4 digits, each of which represents the absolute permission mode for one access class expressed in octal, where each number is a sum of the permission bits. Each permission has a unique value: read permission is 4, write permission is 2, and execute permission is 1. These values represent the position of the permission in a 3-bit value.

For example, the mode 777 means “full permissions” because all bits are set in each access class. Similarly, 000 means “no permissions” because all bits are unset in each access class.

The 3-digit mode 777 is the equivalent to the 4-digit mode 0777 where the leading 0 represents the “special”

permission class of setuid, setgid, and sticky. Likewise, the modes 000 and 0000 are equivalent and represent the absence of permission. (The owner of the file and root still have the ability to change the file’s mode by virtue of their ownership and superuser status.) Finally, if the 3-digit mode is used, chmod always assumes that the special access class is 0. Therefore, if you set an suid-root file to mode 777, chmod assumes that you meant mode 0777, which would take away the special permissions. This is consistent if you remember that octal modes represent absolute permissions and the special group class is assumed to be 0 if a 3-digit mode is provided.

The following is a table to help calculate permission modes:

chmod absolute values

special user group other

s g t r w x r w x r w x

4 2 1 4 2 1 4 2 1 4 2 1

For example, full access is 0777, which represents:

special user group other

s g t r w x r w x r w x

4 2 1 4 2 1 4 2 1 4 2 1

0 7 7 7

There are no special bits set, so the special octal digit is 0, while all three bits in each other class are set. Each set of bits totals 7 (4 + 2 + 1), so the mode is 0777.

Another example is mode 2755, which represents setgid (2), plus “full access” for user (4 + 2 + 1) and write and execute (4 + 1) access for both the group and other class.

special user group other

s g t r w x r w x r w x

4 2 1 4 2 1 4 2 1 4 2 1

2 7 5 5

Absolute modes are applied like this:

$ chmod 0755 somefile.sh

Absolute mode is great for setting things to be exactly what you want, or imposing a radically different order onto a file or directory, but it’s not very good for adding the sticky bit to a file. For that kind of work (or if the octal modes just confuse you) the symbolic mode is well suited.

chmod: symbolic — more user-friendly

The symbolic mode works pretty much the way you would expect. To add the execute bit to the user class, you would execute a command like this:

$ chmod u+x somefile.sh

Or to add execute to all three classes:

$ chmod ugo+x somefile.sh

To make a file setuid:

$ chmod u+s somefile.sh

To remove all permissions:

$ chmod ugo-rwxsgt somefile.sh

Some people are so put off by the absolute mode that they never learn it — you’ll find with experience that both methods of setting permissions can be expeditious depending on the situation. More information is available in the chmod manpage.

Regardless of how you set permissions, it is critical that you use the “principle of least privilege” and only grant the privileges that are necessary for proper operation.

Firewalls

Stateless Firewalls

In the late 1980s, the Internet was just beginning to grow beyond its early academic and governmental applications into the commercial and personal worlds. The Great Internet Worm in November of 1988 infected around 6,000 hosts (roughly 10% of the Internet) in the first major infection of its kind and helped to focus research and awareness on securing computers from unauthorized access. It was in this environment that the first firewalls were written about and developed at Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and Bell Labs (AT&T).

The first functional firewalls inspected individual packet headers without regard for established connections, other packets, or their contents. These kind of firewalls became known as “packet filters” because they literally filtered the packets one by one according to a set of criteria, not unlike a quality control inspector on an assembly line. For TCP and UDP, these criteria could be reduced essentially to the source and destination addresses and ports in the packet header. For example, a packet filter could reject or drop any packets destined for port 23 (telnet) on host 10.10.10.10 from any address other than 10.10.10.11. This kind of filter could rapidly and inexpensively inspect and classify packets without using much space (although they were not very “smart”).

Unsurprisingly, simple packet filters are not adequate for many applications, such as the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), because these protocols open additional connections on random ports that can not be anticipated or recognized by the firewall since it does not understand or consider the state of any connection.

This kind of simple “packet filter” ultimately became known as a “stateless firewall”.

Stateful Firewalls

“Stateful firewalls” arrived not long after “stateless firewalls”. Stateful firewalls keep tables of network connections and states in memory in order to determine if a packet is part of a preexisting network connection, the start of a new and legitimate connection, or an unwanted or unrelated packet. This kind of firewall can recognize, for example, that a new connection on a random high port from a host with a preexisting FTP connection is a related connection and should be allowed. Another difference is that while a stateless firewall will allow all packets from acceptable hosts to an open port, a stateful firewall can be configured to allow packets to that port only if a legitimate TCP connection (or some other protocol) has already been established in some acceptable way. Understanding protocol state essentially gives stateful firewalls vastly more criteria in deciding whether to accept or reject a packet, which translates into finer granularity.

The cutting edge of firewall design today is what is called an “application-layer firewall”, which is a firewall that

performs “deep packet inspection”. This means that the firewall is capable of looking not just at the header of the packets and the state of the connection, but at the payload of the packet in context of what the application processing the packets will do. For example, an application-layer firewall could be used to block Java applets from HTTP traffic by inspecting the packets and stripping Java code or dropping the packets entirely. In order to do this, it must understand what applet code looks like within the payload portion of any HTTP traffic stream. An application-layer firewall essentially has total control over the network stream, although this control comes at a significant expense in terms of CPU time and software complexity.

Most firewalls in use today lie somewhere between the stateful firewall and the application-layer firewall. These firewalls function essentially as a stateful firewall, but may understand enough of a few applications to perform some application-layer tasks. It is also common to couple a primarily stateful firewall (such as netfilter/iptables) with separate application layer firewalls for individual applications.

Firewall Policy Design

People imagine many different things when they hear the term “firewall” in the context of computer networking. Some envision an impenetrable wall of flame [at least I did –ed.]. A Hollywood screenwriter might envision Harrison Ford battling kidnappers. A mechanic might envision the wall between the engine and passenger compartment of a car. Yet mysteriously, every firewall is illustrated as a boring, red brick wall, typically with no fire in sight.

Actually, the brick wall isn’t that strange — the name “firewall” comes from the brick walls in buildings placed to stop the spread of a fire from one area to another. But no matter who you are or what you see in your minds eye, the conventional wisdom is that firewalls are used to “keep the bad stuff out,” whether you’re protecting your desktop PC at home, your office LAN, or the Pentagon. However, those of us in the field of computer security often see firewalls more as a means of keeping things in rather than keeping them out.

In one sense, these are two sides of the same coin — but how you design something is (often unconsciously) directly related to how you view the problem, and this can lead to very different design choices when developing a firewall. The goal of “keeping things out” is by definition, exclusively concerned with keeping external attackers “outside” the system, with no regard for what is inside that is worth protecting, and without considering threats (intentional or unintentional) that are already inside, like malicious or foolish employees. This is only half the picture. In contrast, “keeping things in” by definition concerns itself with what is “inside” like sensitive data, privileged access, etc., and encourages the designer to consider all threats — both internal and external — against the protected resource.

Practically speaking, these two goals often result in different default policies. The goal of “keeping things out” often results in a policy that by default allows anything not considered to be a threat. This is called a default allow policy, and the classic example of this kind of firewall allows all outbound traffic, but only allows “untrusted” inbound traffic to special services, such as a web server (which is then responsible for its own security). This is better than nothing, but is hardly secure. If an attacker can trick someone inside into opening a trojan horse, the malicious software can exploit the liberal egress policy by making connections to a malicious host on the Internet, which can be used to send messages to the now-compromised system. Incidentally, this is how the firewalls on most home routers are designed.

On the other hand, the “keeping things in” policy usually results in a policy that by default denies everything, and allows only what is necessary for the proper functioning of a system. This embodies the principle of “least privilege” and in the context of a firewall is called a default deny policy. A firewall configured this way allows only the handful of things that are strictly required. This limits inbound traffic as before, but also only allows outbound traffic to carefully chosen targets. For example, this might only allow oubound traffic to a secured mail server, ssh server, and the few web servers required for an employee to accomplish their job. This drastically limits the means by which traffic can enter or leave the network, and if an employee executes a trojan as in the last example, that malicious software will not be able to contact its evil master because the malicious Internet host will almost certainly not be in the list of allowed outbound connections.

The obvious downside to a “default deny” firewall policy is maintenance and inconvenience — it is harder to install in the first place, and any new network service or traffic type on the network must be explicitly allowed or it will not

function. Allowing all outbound traffic significantly cuts down on this kind of maintenance — at the cost of security.

Firewall and Network Testing Tools

iptables: set and clear rules in netfilter

iptables is actually the user space tool for administering the netfilter functions and tables in the Linux kernel, but the entire netfilter and iptables package is commonly referred to simply as iptables. iptables has several built-in tables of rules (such as filter and nat) , several built-in “chains” (which are sets of network traffic including the built-in INPUT, OUTPUT, and FORWARD for inbound, outbound, and routed traffic), a set of powerful loadable modules of matching stateful filters, the typical set of stateless criteria (such as source, destination, and interface), and a set of targets that represent what to do with a matching packet. These options allow sophisticated firewalls to be defined.

iptables can be intimidating and confusing at first glance even for veteran sysadmins, but especially to users who are not used to configuring firewalls at all or are used to configuring firewalls through a GUI. iptables expressive plugins further complicate the syntax. A typical iptables command looks something like this:

$ iptables -t filter -A INPUT -m state –state NEW -p tcp -s 192.168.0.1 –dport 23 -j REJECT

Upon closer inspection, iptables is revealed to be merely a command whose arguments define a single rule for packet filtering based on a number of possible criteria. iptables takes those arguments translates them one command at a time into priority-ordered filter rules in the Linux kernel. Thinking of iptables as a command with arguments can help demystify netfilter and the process of designing firewalls with iptables — let’s break down the above iptables command and translate it into English:

iptables command arguments

command/argument

translation

iptables

We’re going to use the iptables tool to insert a new rule into netfilter.

-t filter

This rule is going to go in the filter table, which is the built-in packet filtering table. This

rule will apply only to:

-A INPUT

packets that have been put into the INPUT chain either by the kernel or by some

previous rule and which:

-m state —

represent a new connection,

state NEW

-p tcp

are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) packets,

-s 192.168.0.1

are from the host 192.168.0.1,

–dport 23

and are destined for port 23.

Reject any matching packet. Processing of all packets matching this rule will instantly

-j REJECT

jump to the built-in target REJECT, which means that the packet will be rejected by the

kernel with some kind of network error message.

A few other examples:

$ iptables -p tcp –syn –dport 23 -m connlimit –connlimit-above 2 -j REJECT

This rule (from man iptables) allows 2 telnet connections per client host. Note that this rule uses the connlimit matching module, and rejects additional connections.

$ iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT

$ iptables -A OUTPUT -o lo -j ACCEPT

These rules accepts any inbound or outbound traffic on the internal loopback network device (an internal, logical network adapter the kernel uses for network communication internal to the computer) regardless of state, protocol, source, or destination address. The -i lo and -o lo arguments specify the “input interface” and “output interface” the packet arrived on.

$IPTABLES -t filter -A INPUT -m state –state NEW,RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT $IPTABLES -t filter -A OUTPUT -m state –state NEW,RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

These rules accept all INBOUND and OUTBOUND traffic regardless of interface, address, port or protocol. They use the state matching module, but accept all NEW, RELATED, and ESTABLISHED packets (which is basically all traffic). This rule is basically like having no firewall at all!

NEW, RELATED, ESTABLISHED

Think of your firewall as a security checkpoint in a big office building. There’s usually two lines — one for people with IDs, and one for people without IDs. If someone already has an ID, they can skip the long line, and go through. If they don’t, they have to wait to get an ID card or visitor’s pass. This is analogous to the distinction between NEW traffic versus RELATED or ESTABLISHED traffic (which you usually see together). Traffic marked NEW doesn’t have an ID badge yet, because it is the first packet of a new stream of traffic. On the other hand, a packet of a RELATED or ESTABLISHED stream is part of something that by definition has already come through the firewall in the past. In other words, the firewall has already given that stream a “badge” (which is really an entry in an internal firewall data structure).

Among other things, this means that firewalls are typically structured so that the first section passes all accepted RELATED,ESTABLISHED traffic first, and then carefully allows only certain kinds of NEW traffic. Why do it in that order?

While this brief introduction to iptables should point you in the right direction, there are other features of iptables not included here that you may want to use for the exercise. There are many HOWTOs, tips, and tutorials online in addition to the iptables manpage; the exercise manual assumes that in order to complete the iptables exercise, you will need to do some research on your own.

nmap: network mapping port scanner

Nmap (homepage) is a very popular “port scanner that can be used to determine what kind of services are running on a remote or local host, perform OS fingerprintin g, and many other tasks. Nmap is capable of performing many tasks in a “stealth mode” designed to not raise the suspicion of the victim, but some tasks require more obvious techniques.

Nmap is incredibly powerful, but the basic functionality of the application is easy to use:

$ sudo nmap yahoo.com

Starting Nmap 4.20 ( http://insecure.org ) at 2007-09-22 21:33 PDT Warning: Hostname yahoo.com resolves to 2 IPs. Using 216.109.112.135. Interesting ports on w2.rc.vip.dcn.yahoo.com (216.109.112.135): Not shown: 1694 filtered ports

PORT

STATE

SERVICE

25/tcp

open

smtp

80/tcp

open

http

443/tcp

open

https

Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 29.990 seconds

$ sudo nmap www.somehost.edu -P0

Starting Nmap 4.20 ( http://insecure.org ) at 2007-09-22 21:34 PDT Interesting ports on dns.somehost.edu (33.xx.111.1):

Not shown: 1677

filtered ports

PORT

STATE

SERVICE

53/tcp

open

domain

80/tcp

open

http

443/tcp

open

https

2048/tcp

open

dls-monitor

2049/tcp

closed

nfs

2053/tcp

open

knetd

2064/tcp

closed

dnet-keyproxy

2065/tcp

open

dlsrpn

2067/tcp

open

dlswpn

2068/tcp

open

advocentkvm

2105/tcp

open

eklogin

2106/tcp

open

ekshell

2108/tcp

open

rkinit

2111/tcp

open

kx

2112/tcp

open

kip

2120/tcp

open

kauth

2121/tcp

open

ccproxy-ftp

2201/tcp

open

ats

2232/tcp

open

ivs-video

2241/tcp closed

ivsd

Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 32.385 seconds

See the Nmap manpage or online documentation for advanced features.

ifconfig: configure Linux network devices

ifconfig is the network interface configurator in Linux. It is most commonly used by users to see network addresses and statistics, but can also be used to enable and disable interfaces, set configuration options such as network addresses, and more.

For the purposes of this exercise, ifconfig will be used to determine what network addresses are running on what interfaces.

To see the current interface configurations:

$ ifconfig

eth0

Link encap:Ethernet

HWaddr

00:00:5A:00:01:B3

inet addr:64.81.0.256

Bcast:64.81.40.255

Mask:255.255.255.0

inet6 addr: fe80::200:5aff:fe00:1b3/64 Scope:Link

UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST

MTU:1500

Metric:1

RX packets:1826346 errors:0

dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:1887951 errors:0

dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000

TX bytes:1037280707 (989.2 MiB)

RX bytes:691689933 (659.6 MiB)

Interrupt:58

eth1

Link encap:Ethernet

HWaddr

00:13:D4:04:44:CA

inet addr:10.10.10.10

Bcast:10.10.10.255

Mask:255.255.0.0

inet6 addr: fe80::213:d4ff:fe04:44ca/64 Scope:Link

UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST

MTU:1500

Metric:1

RX packets:1165519 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:1549057 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000

TX bytes:1780325755 (1.6 GiB)

RX bytes:428484191 (408.6 MiB)

Interrupt:50

lo

Link encap:Local Loopback

inet addr:127.0.0.1

Mask:255.0.0.0

inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host

Metric:1

UP LOOPBACK RUNNING

MTU:16436

RX packets:5808042 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:5808042 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

collisions:0 txqueuelen:0

TX bytes:6895907043 (6.4 GiB)

RX bytes:6895907043 (6.4 GiB)

Note that eth0‘s address is 64.81.0.256, while eth1‘s address is 10.10.10.10. This means that the two interfaces are on different networks.

telnet: cleartext remote shell

TELNET (TELe-NETwork) is a cleartext remote terminal protocol. On its face, telnet is very simple; the user issues commands over a TCP socket, and the server replies with the results of those commands and waits for more input. In practice, this is complicated with various network and terminal emulation layers. Still, telnet is one of the simplest and oldest network protocols still in use. Due to its cleartext nature and low level access to the system, telnet is incredibly insecure — it was common in the past for system administrators to log in as root using telnet on a hub network connection that could be sniffed by any sufficiently prepared attacker.

Thanks to the advent of Secure Shell (ssh), active use of telnet servers has died off except for some specialized uses. One place where telnet lives on is debugging ASCII-based network services. For example, web pages can be retrieved by telnetting to HTTP servers, and emails can be sent by telnetting to SMTP servers.

Telnetting to a suspected open port is still one of the fastest ways to see if a service is available or reachable.

Here are a few sample uses of telnet:

$ telnet yahoo.com 80

Trying 66.94.234.13…

Connected to yahoo.com.

Escape character is ‘^]’.

GET /

<html><head> …[web page data] …

</body>

</html>

Connection closed by foreign host.

$ telnet mailserver.net 25

Trying 216.0.1.1…

Connected to mailserver.net.

Escape character is ‘^]’.

220 mailserver.net ESMTP Postfix (Ubuntu)

HELO sender.net

250 sender.net

MAIL FROM: me@sender.net

250 Ok

RCPT TO: me@mailserver.net

  1. Ok

DATA

  1. End data with <CR><LF>.<CR><LF> Subject: test mail message

test message

.

250 Ok: queued as 152CFB8802A

^]

telnet> Connection closed.

You have mail in /var/mail/me

For this exercise, you will use telnet to test if a TCP port is open on a remote host. Telnetnetting to an IP and port (see above) should return a “connected” message if it is possible to connect to a running server.

netcat: a network swiss army knife

netcat (often nc on some systems) is a Unix utility for creating and using TCP and UDP sockets. In a very simplified way, netcat is like a telnet client and server without any built in protocol or terminal emulation. Another way of putting it is that netcat is the bare essentials for creating a TCP or UDP socket and client, with hooks for using standard in and standard out for IO.

There are too many cool uses of netcat to describe here. For the purposes of this exercise, we’ll use netcat to create “fake” TCP or UDP servers that we can use to test firewall configurations.

Creating fake TCP/UDP servers with netcat

Starting a fake listening server (a program that will accept connections on a port) is as simple as running:

$ sudo nc -l 80 # we need sudo because 80 is a privileged port

… to start a listening TCP socket on port 80. Then, from the another host, you can either use telnet or nc to connect to the server you just started on the the first host. You should be able to type in one window and see output in the other if the network pipe is open.

Testing UDP services is exactly the same — you can use netcat for that, too. You need to start a listening UDP process on the receiving side, and a sending process on the sending side. If you are testing UDP traffic from a client to a server, you can do something like this:

[server]$ nc -u -l 10000 # listen for UDP traffic on port 10000

Then on the client, do something like this:

[client]$ nc -u server 10000 # connect to server via UDP on port 10000

After establishing the connection, enter some data from standard input (probably your keyboard). Input on the sender should appear on the receiving terminal. Hit ^C to close the programs. UDP is of course an unreliable network protocol, so it’s possible that there will be errors in the text file.

You can do any of this in reverse to test the connection from a server to a client. If you’re able to transmit data, then the firewall is allowing communication.

Introduction

You are Wilbar Memboob, the Security Administrator of FrobozzCo (“You name it, we make it”). You are looking to hire a new system administrator to replace the guy you just fired — unfortunately, even though his resume looked great on paper and he interviewed well, once you put him at a console he clearly had no idea what he was doing.

To him, proper permissions meant that the application worked; if it was secure then that was just icing on the cake. You should have done something when the other admins starting calling him “Triple-7” — a.k.a. “wide open”. But it was when he changed the company fileserver directory permissions to “ugo+rwx” and the projected budget was “released” early — including a list of the employees being laid off — that he signed his own pink slip.

To keep this from happening again, you’ve created a little test for your new applicants to take. Unfortunately, before you can grade the applicants, you need to create an answer key.

Assignment Instructions

In the assignment portion of this exercise, you’re going to create an answer key for your “hiring exam.” You’ll need to swap in your nodes and complete the exercises below.

Setup

  1. If you don’t have an account, follow the instructions in the introduction to DETER document.

  1. Log into DETER.

  1. Create an instance of this exercise by following the instructions here, using

/share/education/PermissionsFirewalls_UCLA/permissions.ns as your NS File.

In the “Idle-Swap” field, enter “1”. This tells DETER to swap your experiment out if it is idle for more than one hour.

In the “Max. Duration” field, enter “6”. This tells DETER to swap the experiment out after six hours.

  1. Swap in your new lab.

  1. After the experiment has finished swapping in, log in to the node via ssh.

As mentioned in DETER Instructions, changes to DETER nodes are lost when the nodes are swapped out. This means that you must manually save your work between working on nodes in order to keep it. However, this exercise includes experimental scripts to help you save and restore your work.

Saving your Work

After completing the POSIX and firewall-related execises on the server node, cd into the /root directory and execute the script /root/submit.sh; like this:

$ ./submit.sh

…it will make a tarball of all the relevant files and their permissions, including the /root/permissions-answers.txt and firewall.sh script you have updated. You must copy or move the created tarball into your group directory, otherwise it will be lost upon swapout.

Restoring Your Work

The experimental script /root/restore.sh on the server node, takes as input the path to a tarball created by submit.sh described above and restores the files to their proper locations on the system. This includes all the files you are asked to create or change in the first part, as well as the firewall.sh script for the second part.

WARNING: These scripts do not back up all arbitrary changes you may have made to the node (e.g., changing a peripheral configuration file), and it does not “merge” system files with submission files — it only restores submission files copied by submit.sh. You shouldn’t need to change anything else, but see submit.sh and restore.sh to see exactly what those scripts do, and do not delete any of your submission tarballs so that you can go back to an earlier version if need be.

To use the restore.sh, copy a tarball created by submit.sh into the /root/ directory and execute this command:

$ ./restore.sh username-permissions-123123123.tar.gz

You will be asked if you want to automatically overwrite files, and if you want to selectively restore some files and not others. The options are self-explanatory.

Finally, if you don’t trust the scripts, you can always make your own backups into your group directory and restore them by hand if you prefer.

NOTE: You do not need to run the submit and restore scripts with sudo. However, if you use sudo to run submit.sh, your tarball will be named after the

root user. This is OK — just run sudo ./restore.sh root-permissions-2134234243.tar.gz.

Tasks

Your task is to create an answer key for the following test:

FrobozzCo Permissions and Firewall Test

This test is a part of the application process for the administrator position at FrobozzCo. You will be presented with a number of tasks and questions; the tasks must be executed on the server node of the DETER experiment we have created for this purpose (you can use the client node for testing), while the questions must be answered in a plain text file that will be submitted with the results of your tasks. See below for further instructions.

Part 1: POSIX File Permissions and ‘sudo’

Instructions

The following section includes a number of permissions, firewall, and file creation exercises. This test will be performed on a live network testbed with a full complement of standard utilities and editors. In addition, you are fully encouraged to use the Internet, man pages, help screens, and any other resources available to you in the execution and answering of these problems.

Please read and use these disambiguation rules for setting the correct permissions. Also, make sure that you test your answers — POSIX permissions are simple in theory, but in practice many combinations have counterintuitive effects!

Your answers will consist of an archive, created by the submit.sh script described above. The archive will contain:

  1. A copy of the necessary server resources containing the results of your file creation and permissions modifications. You will be graded only on the correctness of your answers, not their elegance nor how efficiently you came to them.

  1. Your written answers to the numbered short answer questions. These should be written in the file /root/permissions-answers.txt on the server system using an editor (such as vim).

  1. Your firewall script.

See below for instructions on submitting your answers.

Home Directory Security

Note: Admins — members of the wheel group have sudo access. However, unless instructed to do so, use only standard UNIX ACLs — don’t give user accounts sudo permissions or consider the sudo access the ‘wheel’ group already has. Of course, you need to use sudo to create the accounts, edit root files, etc… this is exactly what sudo is for.

Your server needs two home directories, the usual /home and also /admins for your team. Normal home directories are private, while the homedirectories in /admins will be publicly viewable and somewhat collaborative.

  1. Create the /admins directory.

  1. Create the group emp(see man groupadd).

  1. Create the normal (i.e., non admin) user accounts larry, moe, and curly, and the admin user accounts ken, dmr, and bwk.

Note that several files from /etc/skel are copied into each new homedir.

Use passwd to set their passwords to whatever you like (password security is not important for this test).

  1. make sure you specify the home directories for the admins as being in /admins (see man adduser).

  1. add the non-admin accounts to the emp group and add the admins to the wheel group by editing

/etc/group or using usermod.

  1. add larry, bwk, and dmr to ken’s group.

  1. add moe, dmr, and ken to bwk’s group.

  2. add curly, ken, and bwk to dmr’s group.

Admins are not a part of the emp group.

  1. The permissions on the home directories already exclude prying eyes by default. Set the permission mode on /home itself so that normal users can’t list its contents (but can still access their home directories) but so that members of the wheel group have full access to the directory (without using

sudo).

  1. By default, the owner of a homedir is set to be the user and the group class of their homedir. Set the permission modes recursively on the individual homedirectories in /admins (see man chmod) so that:

owners have full access

group users (users who are in the group associated with a user’s home directory) can read and create files in that homedir

Set it so that any other users can read and execute any files

Files created by a group member in that homedir should be set to the homedir owner’s group. (Hint: Look up what the SUID and SGID bits do on directories.)

Homedir permissions for the normal users should use the default permissions.

Example: larry is in ken‘s group. larry can create files in ken’s homedir, and those files are owned by larry, but are assigned to ken‘s group rather than larry‘s group. moe, not in ken‘s group, can only read and execute files.

The Ballot Box

All regular employees use this directory to submit votes for “employee of the month”.

  1. Create the /ballots directory.

  1. Set the permissions on /ballots so that it is owned by root and users can write files into the directory but cannot list the contents of the directory.

  1. Furthermore, set it so that members of the wheel group have no access (not including sudo).

  1. Short Answer 1: Is there any way that employees can read the ballots of other users? If so, what could be done to stop this? If not, what prevents them from reading them?

  1. Short Answer 2: What does the ‘x’ bit mean when applied to directories?

The TPS Reports Directory

Admin employees submit TPS reports in this partially collaborative directory.

  1. Create the /tpsreports directory.

  1. Create the tps user.

  1. Set the permissions on /tpsreports so that it is owned by tps and that members of the wheel group have full access to the directory, but so that no one else has access to the directory.

  2. Furthermore, configure it so that files written into it are still owned by the wheel group, but so that one member of wheel cannot delete another member’s files.

  1. Short Answer 3: Which users on the system can delete arbitrary files in the /tpsreports directory?

  1. Short Answer 4: Is there any way that non-wheel employees can read files in the /tpsreports directory?

  2. Short Answer 5: What do ‘0’ permissions mean for the owner of a directory? What privileges do they have over files in that directory?

sudo: Editing Configuration Files

For the following three short answer questions, assume that your answers are unrelated; that is, your answer for question 6 does not impact the answer for questions 7 or 8.

All members of the wheel group do system administration on the server. Because of this, they all have full sudo access to root privilege with the /etc/sudoers directive ‘%wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL‘. The “NOPASSWD” means they don’t have to enter a passwd upon sudo invocation.

The employee larry is the webmaster for the system, so he has some extra privilege compared to the other employees. For example, larry has sudo access to the command

/usr/bin/vim /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

… with the directive

larry ALL=(ALL) /usr/bin/vim /etc/httpd/confs/httpd.conf … so that he can update the configuration of the webserver.

Short Answer 6: Is this safe? Why or why not? If it is not safe, is there a better way to give larry this

access? If it is safe, how do you know it is safe? (Hint: search online for common sudo issues.)

sudo: Restarting System Processes

As a part of his webmaster duties, larry often requests the wheel group to restart the Apache server with the command ‘/etc/init.d/httpd restart‘. It would make everyone very happy if there was a secure way to let larry restart the Apache server (but not give him any other access).

Short Answer 7: Assuming the init script /etc/init.d/httpd has no unknown vulnerabilities, is it safe to grant larry sudo access to the command /etc/init.d/httpd restart? If this is not secure, explain why.

POSIX and sudo: Two Wrongs Make a Much Bigger Wrong

Carefully examine the permissions on the server. Look at /etc/group, /etc/sudoers, and the files in the /admins and /home directories (and their subdirectories).

Short Answer 8: Is there some way that moe or curly could subvert this system to gain root privileges? If not, how do you know this is true?

Hint: Consider what happens during the UNIX login process — the time between when the user enters the correct password and when they can interact with their shell.

Part 2: Firewall Configuration

The test server has a totally permissive firewall installed — it accepts all inbound and outbound traffic from all ports, protocols, addresses, interfaces, and states. This is basically like having no firewall at all.

Your task is to configure the firewall according to the principle of “least privilege”. This means that it should be maximally restrictive while still permissive enough to allow a strictly defined set of tasks. While some of these rules can also be configured in the server software (this strategy is called defense in depth), we want you to implement the rules in iptables only — do not reconfigure the underlying software.

The firewall has been copied into the directory /root/firewall/ along with a script called extingui.sh to “put out the fire” and clear all the rules in case you make a mistake. The firewall is not enabled by default – – to enforce the rules, execute:

/root/firewall/firewall.sh

… as the root user or using sudo:

sudo /root/firewall/firewall.sh

This will load the rules and start enforcing them. To make sure that you are removing all iptables rules, you should run extingui.sh in between every invocation of firewall.sh or rules might “stick around” which can be very confusing if you are trying to debug the system. This can be done like this as root (or with sudo as above):

/root/firewall/extingui.sh

If you make the server inaccessible with broken rules, don’t worry — you can reboot the node in the DETER console, and since the firewall is not enabled by default, you can log in in order to fix it. Your files will still be on the experimental node as long as you don’t swap out the experiment. (Of course, you can permanently save your files in your home directory.)

Finally, only your final product is evaluated — not the number of times you have to reboot the server. You should expect to lock yourself out a few times.

Your experimental nodes have at least two networks. The first is a control network between your node and users.deterlab.net. This is the network you use to connect to your nodes from users. Your nodes also have an “experimental” network that connects all the machines in a given experiment. For this project, your experimental network connects server and client

The firewall only needs to limit the experimental network interface (the interface with the 10.1.x.x network) and should not ever limit the control network

(192.x.x.x as of this writing) or you may cut yourself off from the node. The experimental interface is one of eth0-ethN and you can determine which using the command ifconfig and looking for the 10.x.x.x interface. Be warned that the specifc interface used may change with a reboot or different experimental node.

See below for instructions on using environment variables to define the experimental interface in your firewall.sh script.

Here’s what the firewall needs to do:

  1. passively ignore any traffic inbound to the interface that says it’s coming from the server itself (obvious spoof attempt). The server uses the localhost loopback device lo for internal traffic, so it should never see incoming traffic from its own IP on the experimental network interface. (See test case 11, below)

  1. Allow all established traffic on the experimental network interface. Established or related traffic is traffic that is part of previously accepted new connections.

  1. Accept new connections on the experimental network (10.1.x.x) of the types listed below:

    1. Inbound TCP connections to the OpenSSH, Apache, and MySQL servers on their standard ports. (Test cases 1, 3, 5)

The MySQL server should only accept connections from the client host.

    1. Inbound UDP connections to the server ports 10000 to 10005 from the host client. (Test case 8)

    2. Inbound ICMP ping requests and replies. (Test case 6)

    1. Outbound TCP connections to any OpenSSH, SMTP, and Apache (on standard ports). (Test cases 2, 4)

    1. Outbound UDP connections to the ports 10006 to 10010 on host client from the server. (Test case 9)

    1. Outbound ICMP ping requests and replies. (Test case 7)

  1. passively ignore all other traffic. (Do not allow it or respond to it in any way.) (Test case 10)

There are many online resources and tutorials for iptables configuration — feel free to use them. Be aware, however, not all tutorials emphasize the principle of least privilege and may give you overly permissive advice! In order to properly configure the firewall, you must consider the basic ways the firewall can differentiate traffic and allow only the specific types you require to properly function.

Please read the helpful advice in the next section for configuring and testing your firewall.

Tips and Tricks

This section includes important rules and tips for making sure that your answers are correct.

1. Rules for resolving filesystem permission ambiguities:

Permissions should always be set to reflect the least privilege required to fulfill the requirements. In POSIX permissions, every bit set represents less security, so we want to set as few bits as possible. Resolve any ambiguities with this cumulative list of guidelines:

  1. Files you are instructed to create are to be owned by root unless otherwise specified. Doing the work as root should do this automatically. (You can become root by executing sudo su –.)

Exception: Files in homedirs should be owned by the homedir owner (useradd should do this by default for boilerplate files like .bash_login, etc).

  1. When setting ownership of a file, set the group class to the same thing as the user (owner) class unless otherwise specified.

Example: Create the directory foo. Set www-data as the owner of foo.

Answer: Set www-data to be the user (owner) and group class of foo.

Example: Create the directory xyzzy. Set the group class to www-data.

Answer: Set the group class to www-data but the user class should still be set to root.

  1. Files whose permissions you are not otherwise instructed to change should stay at their default.

Example: Create directory baz. Create directory quux and set its permissions to be wide open.

Answer: Don’t change baz‘s file mode. It should be owned by root (as per #1). Set quux permissions to 0777.

  1. For any files whose permissions you are instructed to change, unspecified permissions are always assumed to be 0 (no access). In other words, instructions for setting file permissions implicitly include all access groups (even those not explicitly mentioned).

Example: Set directory foo so that its owner has full access.

Answer: The correct mode is 0700, since no group or other permissions were specified and we assume that they are 0.

  1. Permissions are assumed to be for all classes unless specified.

Example: Remove all permissions from /dev/hdc.

Answer: Set /dev/hdc to mode 000 (root still has access of course).

Example: Set read and write permissions on /etc/motd.

Answer: /etc/motd should be set to mode 0666 — all classes can read and write.

  1. When granting permissions, setuid, setgid, and sticky bits are never granted unless specifically required to solve the problem. These bits are special and must be required by the nature of the question or be otherwise mentioned to be granted.

Example: Set a directory so that owner has full access and it’s group class members can create files in it.

Answer: The correct mode is 0730 because a user (in this case the group user) requires both write and execute to create files. The question didn’t specify anything requiring setuid or setgid so they are not enabled.

Note: the other class in this example has no access because the permission is assumed to be 0 (as per #4).

Note: In #3 above, see that “wide open” for the directory quux meant 0777 not 4777 because setuid was not specified or required.

    1. If any tasks are not possible with the standard POSIX permissions available in this exercise, explain why.

  1. Use Environment Variables in your firewall.sh!

Your firewall script is only supposed to limit the traffic on the “experimental network” interface, as opposed to including the “control network” of DETER. If you block the control network, you’re likely to lose connection to your node, or shut off networked file systems, etc.

Unfortunately, different DETER nodes (the physical computers you are given) bring up their networks on different interfaces (and in general you can’t control which nodes you get). This means that on one node, the experimental network might be on eth0, and on another node, it might be on eth4 (or any other ethN). This makes writing your script difficult because it is not 100% portable from one node to another.

However, we can use an environment variable to substitute in the right interface. In the firewall.sh script, there is a variable declaration:

ETH=”eth0″

You can use this variable with the token $ETH — the shell will substitute in its value at runtime. Use ifconfig to make sure that ETH is set to the right value for your experimental node (or update it). For example, use ETH in a hypothetical iptables command like this:

iptables -A INPUT -i $ETH -j ACCEPT

This way, you only need to update the ETH variable if your interface changes, rather than every iptables call that specifies an interface.

3. How to test your firewall

Testing your firewall is easy; you just need to make sure that the allowed services are allowed, and that things that should be denied are denied. To do that, we’ll use a few tools like telnet, netcat, and others.

You may also have noticed that this experiment swaps in two nodes instead of one. One will be called client and the other will be called server. server is the node with the firewall and resources you want to protect, but you can use client to check to see if the firewall is doing its job. You can also use client as a target to see if the server’s outbound rules are functioning properly, using tools such as nmap, telnet, nc, and others in the network tools portion of this document.

The following tests have been provided by Dr. Tanya Crenshaw from the University of Portland. While these test cases cannot guarantee a perfect firewall, they should help you understand if your firewall is meeting the guidelines.

Firewall Test Cases

c$ indicates tests run from client node and s$ indicates tests run from the server node

The test file “hi.txt” was created on the client using by executing: c$ echo

hi” > hi.txt

#

Rule

Test

Result

c$ telnet server 22

SUCCESS: A

Allow inbound traffic

Trying 10.1.1.3…

connection on port

1

to the OpenSSH

Connected to server.

22 is established

port.

Escape character is ‘^]’.

SSH-1.99-OpenSSH_4.2 using the telnet tool.

See well-formed reply from ssh server

2

Allow outbound ssh

in Test #1:

traffic (established).

SSH-1.99-OpenSSH_4.2’

SUCCESS: The ssh server running on the server node replies to telnet’s connection request with the SSH version number.

c$ telnet server 80

SUCCESS: A

3

Allow inbound traffic

Trying 10.1.1.3…

connection on port

to http traffic.

Connected to server.

80 is established

Escape character is ‘^]’.

using the telnet tool.

SUCCESS: The

c$ nc

Apache Web Server

server.MyExp.MyClass.isi.deterlab.net

running on the

4

Allow outbound http

80 < hi.txt

server node replies

traffic (established).

to the client’s badly-

formed http request

with a well-formed

http reply.

SUCCESS:

c$ [client]$ telnet server 3306

Connect to the

Trying 10.1.1.3…

MySQL server

Connected to server.

running on the

Allow inbound and

Escape character is ‘^]’.

server node using

5 outbound mySQL

K#HY000Host ‘client-link0’ is not

the telnet tool.

traffic

allowed to connect to this MySQL

MySQL server

serverConnection closed by foreign

responds with an

host.

error indicating that

outbound traffic is

allowed.

c$ ping server

PING server-link0 (10.1.1.3) 56(84)

Allow new inbound

bytes of data.

64 bytes from server-link0

6 ping traffic.

(10.1.1.3): icmp_seq=0 ttl=64

time=0.412 ms

SUCCESS: Ping request from client is replied to by server. Note that request is new traffic, while reply is established traffic.

s$ ping client

PING client-link0 (10.1.1.2) 56(84)

Allow new

bytes of data.

64 bytes from client-link0

7 outbound ping

SUCCESS: Ping request from server is replied to by client. Note that

traffic.

(10.1.1.2): icmp_seq=0 ttl=64

request is new

time=0.302 ms

traffic, while reply is

established traffic.

s$

nc -u -l 10000

SUCCESS: Traffic

Allow inbound UDP

hello

is allowed into the

server on port

8 traffic on ports

c$

nc -u server 10000

10000. Run the

10000:10005

(type ‘hello’)

same test for

10001:10005.

Allow outbound

  1. UDP traffic on ports 10006:10010

c$ nc -u -l 10006

hello

s$ nc -u client 10006

(type ‘hello’)

SUCCESS: Traffic

is allowed out of the

server on port

10006. Run the

same test for

10007:10010.

10

Disallow all other

c$

telnet

server PORT

traffic

s$

telnet

server PORT

SUCCESS: The full test is to run a bash script on the client-side and server-side which attempts telnet on every other port aside from those not addressed above, and also tests UDP, etc. A good firewall design should ensure that all traffic is dropped except that which is explicitly accepted.

11 Prevent spoofing

Straighforward test unknown

NA

What can go wrong

1. Your firewall cuts off your access to the node.

If you have misconfigured your firewall, and it “locks you out,” you can try to reboot your experimental nodes using the DETER interface. If that does not work, you will need to swap your nodes out and back in again, but beware that swapping your nodes out will destroy any work you have not backed up in your home directory.

Make sure you are using the environment variable to define the interface you are restricting — this will help

keep you from getting “locked out.” See the tips and tricks section for more information.

Submission Instructions

Submit a tarball created by submit.sh to your instructor. You must use a tarball created by this script so that it will correctly save the permissions of the directories.


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