Homework #5 SOlution

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Description

This assignment asks you to complete programming tasks using the Go programming language. This assignment should be worked on individually. Please turn in your solutions electronically via Kodethon or Canvas by the due date.

Getting Started on Kodethon

Download the project les from Kodethon. Please see this support page 1 for details on downloading the required project les on Kodethon, as well as how to submit your solutions via Kodethon.

Go to Switch Environments from your Kodethon dashboard and choose the go execution environment.

Open the Kodethon Terminal to execute commands. This can be done by selecting the grid icon in the top bar, selecting CDE Shell, and then clicking the Terminal button in the upper-right.

(NOTE: The CDE Shell behaves very dierently from the Terminal. Make sure you’re using the Terminal!)

Further questions regarding Kodethon can be directed to the course Piazza forum using the kodethon tag.

GOPATH

You need to set the GOPATH2 environment variable so that the Go compiler knows how to traverse your project.

You can do this by using cd in your terminal to navigate down to the homework directory, then running export GOPATH=$(pwd).

1https://support.kodethon.com/d/38-how-to-use-a-course-as-a-student

2https://golang.org/doc/code.html#GOPATH

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Test Coverage

For all parts of this project, you will need to write tests and ensure 100% test coverage of your code. You can generate a coverage prole using the go test command. See this post3 for more on coverage testing.

To generate a coverage prole for the Smash method in the smash/ package, run go test smash -run Smash -coverprofile=Smash.cov.

You can then run go tool cover -func=Smash.cov | grep smash.go to see what the coverage results are.

You can graphically see which lines of your code are covered by testing using the go tool cover -html=Smash.cov command, which opens a new browser window with the results. (On Kodethon, you may need to download the HTML le for local viewing. Add the ag -o Smash.html to generate an HTML le, which you can then download from Kodethon.)

Testable Examples in Go

Godoc examples4 are snippets of Go code that are displayed as package documentation and that are veried by running them as tests. Examples are compiled (and optionally executed)

as part of a package’s test suite. See also https://blog.golang.org/examples.

Parts 2 and 3 in the assignment use such testable examples.

Detecting Race Conditions

Go includes a race detector, 5 a tool for nding race conditions in Go code.

The race detector is fully integrated with the Go tool chain. For instance, to enable the race detector for tests simply add the -race ag to the command line.

You might nd the race detector useful when debugging the code in Parts 1-2, and when writing your own code for Part 4.

Benchmarking

The go test command supports benchmarking 6 with which functions can be reliably timed.

smash_test.go shows an example of a benchmark, SmashBenchmark. Add the -bench ag to the go test command to run the benchmarks.

3https://blog.golang.org/cover

4https://golang.org/pkg/testing/#hdr-Examples

5https://blog.golang.org/race-detector

6https://golang.org/pkg/testing/#hdr-Benchmarks

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extra credit

 

The -cpu ag can be used to specify a list of GOMAXPROCS7 values for which the tests or benchmarks should be executed.

See https://golang.org/cmd/go/#hdr-Description_of_testing_flags for a complete description of testing ags.

You might nd it useful to run the go test -cpu 1,2,4,8 -bench command to see whether your solution to Parts 4 and 5 exploits parallelism.

Partial Credit

Unlike HW# 2, we do not anticipate giving partial credit for solutions that do not compile or for those do not pass any tests. Partial credit will be given only based on the tests that pass and the code coverage obtained.

The rest of the document describes the four parts of the assignment, and an assignment Part 5.

  • Bug1 (15 points)

The code provided in the package bug1 contains a bug; it fails the test cases provided in

bug1_test.go.

Modify the code in bug1.go to x the bug.

Write new tests, if needed, to ensure that you get 100% code coverage for your code.

  • Bug2 (20 points)

The code provided in the package bug2 contains a bug; it fails the test case provided in

bug2_test.go.

Add code to bug2.go to x the bug. Removing the use of concurrency is not a valid way to x the bug.

Write new tests, if needed, to ensure that you get 100% code coverage for your code.

  • Bug3 (25 points)

The code provided in the package bug3 contains a bug; it fails the test case provided in

bug3_test.go.

Add code to bug3.go to x the bug.

Write new tests, if needed, to ensure that you get 100% code coverage for your code.

7https://golang.org/pkg/runtime/#GOMAXPROCS

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  • NFA (40 points)

A nondeterministic nite automaton (NFA) is dened by a set of states, symbols in an alphabet, and a transition function. A state is represented by an integer. A symbol is represented by a rune, i.e., a character. Given a state and a symbol, a transition function returns the set of states that the NFA can transition to after reading the given symbol. This set of next states could be empty.

A graphical representation of an NFA is shown below:

In this example, f0; 1; 2g are the set of states, fa; bg are the set of symbols, and the transition function is represented by labelled arrows between states.

If the NFA is in state 0 and it reads the symbol a, then it can transition to either state 1 or to state 2.

If the NFA is in state 0 and it reads the symbol b, then it can only transition to state

If the NFA is in state 1 and it reads the symbol b, then it can only transition to state

If the NFA is in state 1 and it reads the symbol a, it cannot make any transitions.

If the NFA is in state 2 and it reads the symbol a or b, it cannot make any transitions.

A given nal state is said to be reachable from a given start state via a given input sequence of symbols if there exists a sequence of transitions such that if the NFA starts at the start state it would reach the nal state after reading the entire sequence of input symbols.

In the example NFA above,

The state 1 is reachable from the state 0 via the input sequence abababa.

The state 1 is not reachable from the state 0 via the input sequence ababab. The state 2 is reachable from state 0 via the input sequence abababa.

For this part of the assignment you are expected to do the following:

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Write a concurrent implementation of the Reachable function in nfa.go that re-turns true if a nal state is reachable from the start state after reading an input sequence of symbols.

Write new tests, if needed, in nfa_test.go to ensure that you get 100% code coverage for your code.

Benchmark your code to check whether your implementation benets from parallelism.

  • Smash (20 points)

This is an optional extra-credit part of the assignment. Points earned in this part

of the assignment will be added to Homeworks 2-5.

In this assignment, you have to write a concurrent implementation of the Smash function whose inputs are

io.Reader8 to read text data, and

a smasher function that returns a uint32 given a word. smasher may return the same output uint32 value for dierent input words.

Words in a string are separated by whitespace and newline. The output of Smash is a map[uint32]uint that stores the count of the number of words that are mapped to the same value by smasher.

As an example, suppose smasher maps a word to its length. Then for the input

a c d ab abc bac abcd dcba, smash will return the map {1: 3, 2: 1, 3: 2, 4: 2}. On the other hand, if the given smasher were to map each word to unique output, then

Smash would return the count of each word in the input io.Reader.

You can look into using buo.Scanner 9 to read data from the io.Reader.10 You might want to use strings.Fields11 to split a string into words.

Write a concurrent implementation of smash in smash.go. There are tests provided in smash_test.go.

If needed, write your own tests in smash_test.go to ensure the tests provide 100% code coverage of the code you write.

Benchmark your code to check whether your implementation benets from parallelism.

8https://golang.org/pkg/io/#Reader

9https://golang.org/pkg/bufio/#Scanner

10https://golang.org/src/bufio/example_test.go

11https://golang.org/pkg/strings/#Fields

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