Implement a polynomial class that uses a doubly-linked list of
polynodes to store the polynomial‘s terms. Each polynode of the list holds the coefficient and exponent for one term. The terms are kept in order from smallest to largest exponent. Each polynomial also maintains a pointer called recent_ptr to the most recently accessed polynode.
Ensure that you can write a class that uses a linked list.
Monday, November 4, 8 am, via Moodle.
Files that you must write:
- 1. h: The header file for the new polynomial class.
- 2. cxx: The implementation file for the new polynomialclass.
Other files that you may find helpful:
- 1. cxx: A simple interactive test program.
- 2. cxx: A non-interactive test program that will be used to grade the correctness of your polynomial class.
- 3. Makefile: compile the test files with the polynomial class.
The Polynomial Class with a Linked List
Discussion of the Assignment
As indicated above, you will write the polynomial class, which uses a doubly- linked list to store coefficients.
Step 1. Polynomials keep linked lists of polynodes. Look at the polynode class in poly.h. This class defines a single term (coefficient plus exponent) in a polynomial. All of the functions for a polynode are defined for you already in this header file.
Please also look at the private member variables for the polynomial class, also in poly.h:
// Head pointer for list of nodes polynode* head_ptr;
// Tail pointer for list of nodes
// Pointer to most recently used node mutable polynode* recent_ptr;
// Current degree of the polynomial
unsigned int current_degree;
The meaning of the mutable keyword will be covered in class. But a brief explanation now: Our plan is to keep the recent_ptr always pointing to the most recently used polynode. For example, when we call the coefficient member function, we will move the recent_ptr to point to the polynode that contains the requested exponent. With a normal member variable, we could
not do this (since the coefficient is a const member function and it is forbidden from changing normal member variables). So the meaning of the mutable keyword is to indicate that changing the member variable does not change the value of the polynomial in a meaningful way (and therefore, the compiler will let const member functions change a mutable variable).
In your poly.cxx, write a clear description of how the member variables of a polynomial are used. The head_ptr and tail_ptr are the head and tail pointers for a doubly-linked list of polynodes that contain the polynomial‘s
terms in order from smallest to largest exponent. To make certain operations simpler, we will always keep a polynode for the zero-order (x^0) term. But other polynodes are kept only if the coefficient is non-zero. We always
maintain recent_ptr as a pointer to some polynode in the list–preferably the most recently used polynode. The degree of the polynomial is stored in current_degree (using zero for the case of all zero coefficients).
Step 2: The poly.h header file contains a prototype for a private member function that will make it easier to implement everything else:
// A private member function to aid the other functions:
void set_recent(unsigned int exponent) const;
The set_recent function will set the recent_ptr to the polynode that contains the requested exponent. If no such exponent exists, then recent_ptr should be set to the last polynode that is still less than the specified exponent. Note that set_recent is a const member function, but that it can still change the mutable recent_ptr member variable. My implementation of set_recent used four cases:
If the requested exponent is zero, then set recent_ptr to the head of the list.
Else if the exponent is greater than or equal to the current_degree, then set
recent_ptr to the tail of the list.
Else if the exponent is smaller than the exponent in the recent polynode, then move the recent_ptr backward as far as needed.
Else move the recent_ptr forward as far as needed.
Step 3. Implement the constructors, destructor, and assignment operator. For the default constructor, you could start by creating a valid empty
polynomial (with a head polynode that has exponent and coefficient of
Then call assign_coef to set the one term. (Note that you need to make a 2-
polynode list if the exponent here is greater than 0.)
The copy constructor should also start by creating a valid empty polynomial. Then have a loop that steps through the terms of the source (using source.next_term). Each term of the source is placed in the polynomial (using assign_coef).
The assignment operator first checks for a self-assignment, then clears out the terms (using the clear function). Finally, it has a loop (similar to the copy constructor) to copy the terms of the source.
Step 4. Implement the assign_coef function. After calling
set_recent(exponent), my implementation had these cases:
If there is a zero coefficient and exponent greater than current_degree, return with no further work.
Else if there is currently no polynode for the given exponent (so that recent_ptr->exponent() is less than the new exponent), make a new polynode and connect it into the list.
Else if the coefficient is non-zero or the exponent is zero, just change the
coefficient of an existing polynode in the list.
Else if the exponent equals the current_degree, the coefficient is zero (otherwise we would have hit the previous case), so we remove the tail polynode, set the recent_ptr to the new tail, and reduce the current_degree.
Else, in this last case, we must have a new zero coefficient for a polynode that is neither the head nor the tail. We just remove this polynode and set the recent_ptr to the previous polynode in the list.
Step 5. Implement the add_to_coef function, using logic like what you used in step 4.
Step 6. Write next_term and previous_term so that they each start with set_recent.
Hint for next_term: Start by calling set_recent(exponent). Normally, the right answer is then in the polynode after recent_ptr (but there is one exception that you should handle).
Hint for previous_term: Start by checking the special case where exponent is zero. Then call set_recent(exponent – 1). Normally, the right answer is then in the recent_ptr polynode (but again, there is one special case that you need to handle–the case where the polynode has exponent and
coefficient of zero).
Step 7. When these above functions are working, use them to write the operator +, operator –, and operator * functions to compute the sum, difference, and product of two polynomials. Write the derivative() function to compute the derivative of a polynomial, using the power rule. And write eval (and its sibling function, operator() ) to evaluate a polynomial at a particular value of x.
For 5% extra credit, you may write the root-finding function find_root, which uses Newton’s method to locate a value of x that makes the polynomial (evaluated at x) equal to zero.