# Programming Assignment 2: Bit Manipulation Solution

$30.00 Category: ## Description Assignment Introduction This assignment is designed to give you a better understanding of bits and bit manipulation. Your task is to write 3 small C bit-related programs. Your programs must follow the input-output guidelines listed in each section, with no additional or missing output. You can assume all your input les will be in proper format as described. Bit Introduction Because this assignment is focused on bits, to receive credit, all parts of this assignment must only use bit operations to complete the tasks of the program. You may not use arithmetic or logic equivalents to the bit tasks being asked for. C provides six operators for bit manipulation:  ~ complement All 0 bits are set to 1 and 1 bits are set to 0. & bitwise AND The bits in the result are set to 1 if the corresponding bits in the two operands are both 1. | bitwise inclusive OR The bits in the result are set to 1 if at least one of the correspond- ing bits in the two operands is 1. ^ bitwise exclusive OR The bits in the result are set to 1 if exactly one of the correspond- ing bits in the two operands is 1. << left shift Shifts the bits of the rst operand left by the number of bits speci ed by the second operand. >> right shift Shifts the bits of the rst operand right by the number of bits speci ed by the second operand. For example: 1 u n s i g n e d s h o r t x = 5 , y = 2 , z ; // i n b i n a r y 5 i s 101 and 2 i s 10 2 z = x & y ; // r e s u l t : 0 3 z = 5 j y ; // r e s u l t : 7 4 z = 5 ^ 1 ; // r e s u l t : 4 An example using shifting: 1 u n s i g n e d s h o r t x = 5 ; 2 p r i n t f ( “%unn%unn” , x << 1 , x >> 1 ) ; 1 First: Bit functions (35 Points) You have to write a program that will read a number followed by a series of bit operations from a le and perform the given operations sequentially on the number. The operations are as follows: set(x, n, v) sets the nth bit of the number x to v comp(x, n) sets the value of the nth bit of x to its complement (1 if 0 and 0 otherwise) get(x, n) returns the value of the nth bit of the number x The least signi cant bit (LSB) is considered to be index 0. Input format: Your program will take the le name as input. The rst line in the le provides the value of the number x to be manipulated. This number should be considered an unsigned short. The following lines will contain the operations to manipulate the number. To simplify parsing, the format of the opera-tions will always be the command name followed by 2 numbers, separated by tabs. For the set(x, n, v) command, the value of the second input number (v) will always be either 0 or 1. For the comp(x, n) and get(x, n) commands the value of the second input number will always be 0 and can be ignored. Note that the changes to x are cumulative, rather than each instruction operating independently on the original x. Output format: Your output for comp and set commands will be the resulting value of the number x after each operation, each on a new line. For get commands, the output should be the requested bit’s value. Example Execution: For example, a sample input le \ le1.txt” contains the following (except the annotation comments):  5 # x = 5 get 0 0 # get(x, 0), ignoring second value (0) comp 0 0 # comp(x, 0), ignoring second value (0) set 1 1 # set(x, 1, 1) The result of the sample run is: • ./first file1.txt 1 4 6 Second: Bit Count functions (35 points) In this part, you have to determine the parity of a number and the number of 1-bit pairs present in the number. Parity refers to whether a number contains an even or odd number of 1-bits. 1-bit pairs are de ned by two adjacent 1’s without overlap with other pairs. For example:  Number Binary sequence Parity Number of pairs 7 111 Odd 1 15 1111 Even 2 367 101101111 Odd 3 2 Input format: This program takes a single number as an argument from the command line. This number should be considered as an unsigned short. Output format: Your program should print either \Even-Parity” if the input has an even number of 1 bits and \Odd-Parity” otherwise, followed by a tab. Your program should then print the number of 1-bit pairs present in the number followed by a new line character. Example Execution:$ ./second 12

Even-Parity 1

• ./second 31

Odd-Parity2

Third: Bit Pattern function (30 points)

In this part, you have to determine whether a number’s bit representation is a palindrome. A palindrome is de ned as a sequence that is the same both forwards and backwards.

We will be working with unsigned shorts which are 2 bytes or 16 bits. For example the number 384 has the binary sequence 0000000110000000 and is thus a palindrome while the sequence 0100100010111011 is not. Note that all values should be considered 16-bit, so while 5 is 101 in binary and looks like a palindrome, in 16 bits it’d be 0000000000000101, which is not.

You can and should use the same get(x, n) function that you created in part 1.

Input format: This program takes a single number as an argument from the command line. This number should be considered as an unsigned short.

Output format: Your program should print either \Is-Palindrome” if the input is a palindrome and \Not-Palindrome” otherwise, followed by a new line character.

Example Execution:

Some sample runs and results are:

• ./third 5 Not-Palindrome

• ./third 384 Is-Palindrome

• ./third 1001 Not-Palindrome

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Structure of your submission folder

All les must be included in the pa2 folder. The pa2 directory in your tar le must contain 3 subdirectories, one each for each of the parts. The name of the directories should be named rst through third (in lower case). Each directory should contain a c source le, a header le (if you use it) and a Make le. For example, the subdirectory rst will contain, rst.c, rst.h (if you create one) and Make le (the names are case sensitive).

pa2

first

Makefile

first.c

first.h (if used)

second

Makefile

second.c

second.h (if used)

third

Makefile

third.c

third.h (if used)

Submission

You have to submit the assignment using Sakai. Your submission should be a tar le named pa2.tar. To create this le, put everything that you are submitting into a directory (folder) named pa2. Then, cd into the directory containing pa2 (that is, pa2’s parent directory) and run the following command:

tar cvf pa2.tar pa2

To check that you have correctly created the tar le, you should copy it (pa2.tar) into an empty directory and run the following command:

tar xvf pa2.tar

This should create a directory named pa2 in the (previously) empty directory.

The pa2 directory in your tar le must contain 3 subdirectories, one each for each of the parts. The name of the directories should be named rst through third (in lower case). Each directory should contain a C source le, a header le (if necessary) and a make le. For example, the subdirectory rst will contain, rst.c, rst.h and Make le (the names are case sensitive).

We provide the AutoGrader to test your assignment. AutoGrader is provided as autograder.tar. Executing the following command will create the autograder folder.

There are two modes available for testing your assignment with the AutoGrader.

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First mode

Testing when you are writing code with a pa2 folder

1. Lets say you have a pa2 folder with the directory structure as described in the assignment.

1. Copy the folder to the directory of the autograder

1. Run the autograder with the following command

It will run your programs and print your scores.

Second mode

This mode is to test your nal submission (i.e, pa2.tar)

1. Copy pa2.tar to the auto grader directory

1. Run the auto grader with pa2.tar as the argument. The command line is

Scoring

The autograder will print out information about the compilation and the testing process. At the end, if your assignment is completely correct, the score will something similar to what is given below.

You scored

17.5 in second

15.0 in third

17.5 in first

Your TOTAL SCORE = 50.0 /50

Your assignment will be graded for another 50 points with test cases not given to you

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