Lab Assignment 2 Solution

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Description

The goal of this assignment is to practice using command line arguments, file input-output, and manipulation of Strings in java.  File input-output and command line arguments will be essential for assignments.

 

Command Line Arguments

A java main function always reads the operating system command line from which it was called, and stores the tokens on that line in the args array.  Use the following Java program to create an executable jar file called CommandLineArguments (see Lab1 to learn how to do this)

 

// CommandLineArguments.java

class CommandLineArguments{

public static void main(String[] args){

int n = args.length;

System.out.println(“args.length = ” + n);

for(int i=0; i<n; i++) System.out.println(args[i]);

}

}

 

then run java –jar CommandLineArguments.jar zero one two three four  and observe the output.  Run it with several other sets of tokens on the command line.  These tokens are called command line arguments, and can be used within a program to specify and modify the program’s behavior.  Typically command line arguments will be either strings specifying optional behavior, text to be processed by the program directly, or names of files to be processed in some way.

 

File Input-Output

The java.util package contains the Scanner class, and the java.io package contains classes PrintWriter and FileWriter.  These classes perform simple input and output operations on text files.  Their usage is illustrated in the program FileCopy.java below, which merely copies one file to another, i.e. it provides essentially the same functionality as the Unix command cp (with respect to text files only.)

 

// FileCopy.java

// Illustrates file IO

 

import java.io.*;

import java.util.Scanner;

 

class FileCopy{

 

public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException{

 

// check number of command line arguments is at least 2

if(args.length < 2){

System.out.println(“Usage: java –jar FileCopy.jar <input file> <output file>”);

System.exit(1);

}

 

// open files

Scanner in = new Scanner(new File(args[0]));

PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter(new FileWriter(args[1]));

 

// read lines from in, write lines to out

while( in.hasNextLine() ){

String line = in.nextLine();

out.println( line );

}

 

// close files

in.close();

out.close();

}

}

 

As you can see, the Scanner constructor takes a File object for initialization, which is itself initialized by a String giving the name of an input file.  The Scanner class contains (among others) methods called hasNextLine() and nextLine().  Read the documentation for Scanner at

 

http://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/api/

 

to learn about the proper usage of these methods.  The PrintWriter constructor takes a FileWriter object for initialization, which is in turn initialized by a String giving the name of an output file.  PrintWriter contains methods print() and println(). When you use System.out.println() you are calling the println() method for an instance of PrintWriter that was initialized to write to stdout.  Note that the FileWriter initialization can fail if no file named args[1] exists in the current directory.  If it fails, it will throw an IOException.  This is a checked exception, which cannot be ignored, and therefore function main() must either catch the exception, or throw it up the chain of function calls.  (In the case of function main(), the “calling function” is the operating system).  In this example, we deal with this by declaring main to throw an IOException, causing the program to quit if the exception is encountered.  Similar comments apply to the initialization of the Scanner object.  See the java documentation for more details.

 

Compile and run FileCopy.java, and observe that a Usage statement is printed if the user does not provide at least two command line arguments.  This Usage statement assumes that the program is being run from an executable jar file called FileCopy.  All of your programs that take command line arguments should include such a usage statement.  If the usage statement was printed when you ran FileCopy.java, try running it again with a file and observe the behavior by viewing each file after it has ran.

 

String Tokenization

A common task in text processing is to parse a string by deleting the surrounding whitespace characters, keeping just the discrete words or “tokens” which remain.  A token is a maximal substring containing no whitespace characters.  For instance, consider the preceding sentence to be a string.  The 10 tokens in this string are: “A”, “token”, “is”, “a”, “maximal”, “substring”, “containing”, “no”, “whitespace”, “characters.”.  Whitespace here is defined to mean spaces, newlines, and tab characters.  This is one of the first tasks that a compiler for any language such as Java or C must perform.  The source file is broken up into tokens, each of which is then classified as: keyword, identifier, punctuation, etc.  Java’s String class contains a method called split() which decomposes a string into tokens, then returns a String array containing the tokens as its elements.  Compile and run the following program FileTokens.java illustrating these operations.

 

//—————————————————————————–

// FileTokens.java

// Illustrates file IO and tokenization of strings.

//—————————————————————————–

import java.io.*;

import java.util.Scanner;

 

class FileTokens{

public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException{

 

int lineNumber = 0;

 

// check number of command line arguments is at least 2

if(args.length < 2){

System.out.println(“Usage: java –jar FileTokens.jar <input file> <output file>”);

System.exit(1);

}

 

// open files

Scanner in = new Scanner(new File(args[0]));

PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter(new FileWriter(args[1]));

 

// read lines from in, extract and print tokens from each line

while( in.hasNextLine() ){

lineNumber++;

 

// trim leading and trailing spaces, then add one trailing space so

// split works on blank lines

String line = in.nextLine().trim() + ” “;

 

// split line around white space

String[] token = line.split(“\\s+”);

 

// print out tokens

int n = token.length;

out.println(“Line ” + lineNumber + ” contains ” + n + ” tokens:”);

for(int i=0; i<n; i++){

out.println(”  “+token[i]);

}

}

 

// close files

in.close();

out.close();

}

}

Reversing a file

Write a java program called FileReverse.java that takes two command line arguments giving the names of the input and output files respectively (following the preceding examples).  Your program will read each line of input, parse the tokens, then print each token backwards to the output file on a line by itself.  For example given a file called in containing the lines:

 

abc defg

hi

jkl mnop q

 

rstu v

wxyz

 

Write a Makefile to create a jar file FileReverse.jar. The command java –jar FileReverse.jar in out will create a file called out containing the lines:

 

cba

gfed

ih

lkj

ponm

q

utsr

v

zyxw

 

Your program will contain a method called stringReverse() with the following signature:

 

public static String stringReverse(String s)

 

This function will return a String that is the reversal of s.  Note that reversing a String is very similar to reversing an array.  Study the methods in the String class documented at http://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/api/ to determine how this might be done.  See especially the instance methods charAt() and substring(), as well as the static method valueOf(). Use stringReverse() to perform the reversal of tokens from the input file.

 

 

What to submit:

 

Create a folder Lab2 in your git repo to submit these files.

 

Submit the files FileReverse.java, Makefile, README.

You will also need to put the test files gettysburg.txt and gettysburg-reversed.txt in the Lab2 folder. (This is necessary for the checking script to work. You may or may not submit them through git.)

 

Do add any online resources or names of others you’ve discussed things with in the README. Please run the checking script. Go to the Piazza page on submitting your assignment for more details on that.

 

Grading:

  

  • (10 points) Everything done correctly
  • (6 points) FileReverse.java fails on some inputs.

 


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