Chapter 2 Lab Java Fundamentals Solution

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Description

This lab is designed to give you practice with some of the basics in Java. We will
continue ideas from lab 1 by correcting logic errors while looking at mathematical
formulas in Java. We will explore the difference between integer division and division on your calculator as well as reviewing the order of operations.
We will also learn how to use mathematical formulas that are preprogrammed in Java.
On your calculator there are buttons to be able to do certain operations, such as raise a number to a power or use the number pi. Similarly, in Java, we will have programs that are available for our use that will also do these operations. Mathematical operations that can be performed with the touch of a button on a calculator are also available in the Math class. We will learn how to use a Math class method to cube the radius in the formula for finding the volume of a sphere.
This lab also introduces communicating with the user. We have already seen how
console input and output work in lab 1. We will now need to learn how to program user input, by investigating the lines of code that we need to add in order to use the Scanner class. We will also learn the method call needed for output.
Alternately, you may use dialog boxes for communicating with the user. An introduction to graphical user interface (GUI) programming is explored using the JOptionPane class.
The String class is introduced and we will use some of the available methods to prepare you for string processing.
We will bring everything we have learned together by creating a program from an
algorithm. Finally, you will document the program by adding comments. Comments are not read by the computer, they are for use by the programmer. They are to help a programmer document what the program does and how it accomplishes it. This is very important when a programmer needs to modify code that is written by another person.Task #1 Correcting Logic Errors in Formulas

1. Download the file NumericTypes.java (see code listing 2.1) from the Student CD or as directed by your instructor.
2. Compile the source file, run the program, and observe the output. Some of the
output is incorrect. You need to correct logic errors in the average formula and
the temperature conversion formula. The logic errors could be due to conversion
between data types, order of operations, or formula problems. The necessary
formulas are
average =
score score
numberOfScores
1+ 2
C = 5 ( )
9 F – 32
3. Each time you make changes to the program code, you must compile again for the changes to take effect before running the program again.
4. Make sure that the output makes sense before you continue. The average of 95 and 100 should be 97.5 and the temperature that water boils is 100 degrees
Celsius

Task #2 Using the Scanner Class for User Input
1. Add an import statement above the class declaration to make the Scanner class available to your program.
2. In the main method, create a Scanner object and connect it to the System.in
object.
3. Prompt the user to enter his/her first name.
4. Read the name from the keyboard using the nextLine method, and store it into a variable called firstName (you will need to declare any variables you use).
5. Prompt the user to enter his/her last name.
6. Read the name from the keyboard and store it in a variable called lastName.
7. Concatenate the firstName and lastName with a space between them and store the result in a variable called fullName.
8. Print out the fullName.
9. Compile, debug, and run, using your name as test data.
10. Since we are adding on to the same program, each time we run the program we will get the output from the previous tasks before the output of the current task.

Task #2 (Alternate) Using Dialog Boxes for User Input
1. Add an import statement above the class declaration to make the JOptionPane
2. In the main method, prompt the user to enter his/her first name by displaying an input dialog box and storing the user input in a variable called firstName (you will need to declare any variables you use).

1. Prompt the user to enter his/her last name by displaying an input dialog box and storing the user input in a variable called lastName.
4. Concatenate the firstName and lastName with a space between them and store the result in a variable called fullName.
5. Display the fullName using a message dialog box.
6. Compile, debug, and run, using your name as test data.
7. Since we are adding on to the same program, each time we run the program we will get the output from the previous tasks before the output of the current task.

1. Use the charAt method to get the first character in firstName and store it in a
variable called firstInitial (you will need to declare any variables that you use).
2. Print out the user’s first initial.
3. Use the toUpperCase method to change the fullName to all capitals and store it
back into the fullName variable
4. Add a line that prints out the value of fullName and how many characters
(including the space) are in the string stored in fullName (use the method length
to obtain that information).
5. Compile, debug, and run. The new output added on after the output from the
Task #4 Using Predefined Math Functions
1. Add a line that prompts the user to enter the diameter of a sphere.
2. Read in and store the number into a variable called diameter (you will need to
declare any variables that you use).
3. The diameter is twice as long as the radius, so calculate and store the radius in an appropriately named variable.
4. The formula for the volume of a sphere is 3
V = 4 p r3
Convert the formula to Java and add a line which calculates and stores the value
of volume in an appropriately named variable. Use Math.PI for p and Math.pow
5. Print your results to the screen with an appropriate message.
6. Compile, debug, and run using the following test data and record the results.
Diameter Volume (hand calculated) Volume (resulting output)
2
25.4
875,000

Task #5 – Create a program from scratch

In this task the student will create a new program that calculates gas mileage in miles per gallon. The student will use string expressions, assignment statements, input and output statements to communicate with the user.
1. Create a new file in your IDE or text editor.
2. Create the shell for your first program by entering:
public class Mileage
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{
}
}
3. Save the file as Mileage.java.
4. Translate the algorithm below into Java. Don’t forget to declare variables before they are used. Each variable must be one word only (no spaces).
Print a line indicating this program will calculate mileage
Print prompt to user asking for miles driven
Print prompt to user asking for gallons used
Calculate miles per gallon by dividing miles driven by gallons used
Print miles per gallon along with appropriate labels
5. Compile the program and debug, repeating until it compiles successfully.
6. Run the program and test it using the following sets of data and record the results:
Miles driven Gallons used Miles per gallon
(hand calculated)
Miles per gallon
(resulting output)
2000 100
500 25.5
241.5 10
100 0
7. The last set of data caused the computer to divide 100 by 0, which resulted in
what is called a runtime error. Notice that runtime can occur on programs
which compile and run on many other sets of data. This emphasizes the need to
thoroughly test you program with all possible kinds of data.

Task #6 Documenting a Java Program
1. Compare the code listings of NumericTypes.java with Mileage.java. You will see that NumericTypes.java has lines which have information about what the program is doing. These lines are called comments and are designated by the // at the beginning of the line. Any comment that starts with /** and ends with */ is
considered a documentation comment. These are typically written just before a
class header, giving a brief description of the class. They are also used for documenting methods in the same way.
2. Write a documentation comment at the top of the program which indicates the
purpose of the program, your name, and today’s date.
that section.
5. Finally add a comment line indicating the purpose of the calculation.
Code Listing 2.1 (NumericTypes.java)
/**
This program demonstrates how numeric types and operators behave
*/
public class NumericTypes
{
public static void main (String [] args)
{
//TASK #2 Create a Scanner object here (not used for alternate)
//identifier declarations
final int NUMBER = 2 ; // number of scores
final int SCORE1 = 100; // first test score
final int SCORE2 = 95; // second test score
final int BOILING_IN_F = 212; // freezing temperature
int fToC; // temperature in Celsius
double average; // arithmetic average
String output; // line of output to print out
//TASK #2 declare variables used here
//TASK #3 declare variables used here
//TASK #4 declare variables used here
// Find an arithmetic average
average = SCORE1 + SCORE2 / NUMBER;
output = SCORE1 + ” and ” + SCORE2 + ” have an average of ”
+ average;
System.out.println(output);
// Convert Fahrenheit temperatures to Celsius
fToC = 5/9 * (BOILING_IN_F – 32);
11
output = BOILING_IN_F + ” in Fahrenheit is ” + fToC
+ ” in Celsius.”;
System.out.println(output);
System.out.println(); // to leave a blank line
// prompt the user for first name
// read the user’s first name
// prompt the user for last name
// read the user’s last name
// concatenate the user’s first and last names
// print out the user’s full name
System.out.println(); // to leave a blank line
// get the first character from the user’s first name
// print out the user’s first initial
// convert the user’s full name to all capital letters
// print out the user’s full name in all capital letters
// and number of characters in it
System.out.println(); // to leave a blank line