Evolution Lab Report BIO 124

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    1. Match the following terms with their correct definitions.
splitting of one species into two or more species
shows how various species are related to each other and how they evolved from one to another
species whose morphology has adapted to a particular ecological niche
Speciation that occurs due to resulting sub populations having been separated by a geographic barrier
a single species gives rise to a variety of new species, each adapted to a specific environment
speciation without a geographic barrier
similar evolutionary outcomes by independent species
  1. Which of the following is a mechanism for evolution?

Which of the following is a mechanism for evolution?

Select one:

  1. Artificial selection
  2. Speciation
  3. Homologous structures
  4. Natural selection

 

  1. What are the 4 essential components for natural selection?
  2. What is the significance ofArchaeopteryx?
  3. Distinguish between homologous structures and analogous structures.
  4. Match the following terms with their correct definitions.
microvariations in the human genome that causes diversity in the populations Answer 1 Choose… Gene flow Nonrandom mating Mutations Assortative mating SNP Genetic drift
permanent genetic changes Answer 2 Choose… Gene flow Nonrandom mating Mutations Assortative mating SNP Genetic drift
only certain genotypes or phenotypes mate with one another Answer 3 Choose… Gene flow Nonrandom mating Mutations Assortative mating SNP Genetic drift
type of nonrandom mating that occurs when individuals mate with those having the same phenotype in regards to a certain characteristic Answer 4 Choose… Gene flow Nonrandom mating Mutations Assortative mating SNP Genetic drift
movement of alleles between populations Answer 5 Choose… Gene flow Nonrandom mating Mutations Assortative mating SNP Genetic drift
changes in the allele frequencies of a gene pool due to chance
  1. What causes the bottleneck effect? And what results from it?
  2. Discuss the 3 types of natural selection. Give examples of each.
  3. Fill in the table below based on which ecomorphs you identified each anole species to represent.
  4. Which of the following islands does this phylogenetic tree represent? ANSERS AVAILABLE FOR THE NEXT 4 QUESTIONS
  5. What is the evolutionary significance of the location of the ecomorph on or near the live tree?
  6. Which anole species showed sexual dimorphism?
  7. Why do the sexually dimorphic males look different from the females?
  8. Which of the following is an ecological factor that would fail to exert pressure on a species of anole lizards to evolve into new species of ecomorphs?
  9. Select one:

a.)availability of and competition for food

  1. b) appropriate areas for shelter and nesting
  2. c) predators localized to a particular habitat
  3. d) accessibility to cooling mud baths

 

16 Do the differences between the mainland and island anoles support the theory of ecomorph evolutionary convergence? Why or why not?

Select one:

  1. No, because the mainland anoles experienced only slightly different selective pressures they did not evolve with similar physical and behavioral characteristics.
  2. No, because the mainland and island anoles are not closely related to each other; they merely evolved to appear superficially similar.
  3. No, because there is not enough data about the mainland and island anoles to determine if they support the theory of ecomorph evolutionary convergence.
  4. Yes, because the mainland anoles experienced different selective pressures they evolved with different physical and behavioral characteristics.

 

 

17  Based on the Cuban phylogenetic tree, which of the following is the correct order of appearance of the ecomorphs on that island, from earliest to latest?

Select one:

  1. trunk-crown, twig, grass-bush, trunk-ground
  2. trunk-crown, twig, crown giant, trunk-ground
  3. crown giant, trunk-ground, trunk-crown, twig
  4. trunk-crown, twig, trunk, crown giant

 

 

18 Based on the Hispaniolan phylogenetic tree, which of the following is the correct order of appearance of the ecomorphs on that island, from earliest to latest?

Select one:

  1. twig, grass-bush, trunk-ground, crown giant
  2. twig, crown giant, trunk-ground, trunk-crown
  3. trunk-crown, twig, crown giant, trunk-ground
  4. crown giant, trunk-ground, trunk, trunk-crown

Question 22

Question text

Based on the Jamaican phylogenetic tree, which of the following is the correct order of appearance of the ecomorphs on that island, from earliest to latest?

Select one:

  1. trunk-crown, trunk, trunk-ground, twig
  2. twig, trunk-ground, crown giant, trunk-crown
  3. crown giant, grass-bush, twig, trunk-ground
  4. crown giant, trunk-ground, trunk-crown, twig

Question 23

Question text

Based on the Puerto Rican phylogenetic tree, which of the following is the correct order of appearance of the ecomorphs on that island, from earliest to latest?

Select one:

  1. twig, crown giant, trunk-ground, trunk-crown
  2. twig, trunk-ground, crown giant, trunk-crown
  3. trunk-ground, grass-bush, crown giant, trunk-crown
  4. trunk-ground, twig, trunk, crown giant

Question 24

Question text

Which Anole species did NOT show sexual dimorphism?

Select one:

  1. Anolis marcanoi
  2. Anolis coelestinus
  3. Anolis grahmi
  4. Anolis sagrei

 

Which of the following is NOT one of the ways the lizards varied their bobs to create a more varied “language”?

Select one:

  1. Some lizards moved their heads side to side while others moved their heads up and down.
  2. Some lizards rolled their heads in circles whereas others moved their heads in only one direction.
  3. Some of the lizards did push-ups as well as head bobs whereas others did only push-ups or head bobs.
  4. Some lizards bobbed their heads very quickly while others bobbed their heads more slowly.

 

How do scientists use phylogenies?

Select one:

  1. to determine which groups of organisms may be most closely related to each other
  2. to evaluate whether two similar populations have evolved into separate species or not
  3. to determine if adaptive radiation or convergent evolution was the primary mode of speciation
  4. to determine which species are the most highly evolved

Question 27

Question text

What characteristic allowed the same ecomorphs to be produced on all four islands even though the original species were different on each island?

Select one:

  1. All the original species were descendants of a common ancestor, therefore all the different ecomorphs reverted to the common ancestral type.
  2. Anolis lizards are very genetically flexible, and therefore can adopt the traits of lizards transferred from different locations quickly.
  3. Identical selective pressures allowed the different species to evolve with similar physical and behavioral characteristics.
  4. Originally, all of the islands were connected to each other by land bridges and the ecomorphs on each island interbred with each other.

Question 28

Question text

How did one species produce so many different species (the six ecomorphs

Select one:

  1. Because the islands were isolated for an extended period, a lack of interbreeding between populations of the same species caused all the species to diverge.
  2. Without competition from other species, the one species adapted to fit all of the available habitat types.
  3. To fill all the needed jobs in their ecosystem properly, Anolis lizards diverged into exactly the amount of species necessary for their habitat.
  4. Because the Anolis lizards have such a diverse range of characteristics, they were able to produce many different species.

Question 29

Question text

What is the evolutionary disadvantage of undergoing sexual selection?

Select one:

  1. The males are unable to blend in with their surroundings to hide from predators.
  2. All of the answer choices are evolutionary disadvantages of undergoing sexual selection.
  3. Sickly males are not able to produce robust offspring if given the chance to mate.
  4. Different ecomorphs cannot mate with each other to produce new ecomorphs that can exploit new resources.

Question 30

Question text

What is the evolutionary importance of the different bobbing “languages”?

Select one:

  1. Bobbing helps migrating lizards maintain communication as they travel.
  2. The lizard that changes its bobbing the most continues to surprise its prey, thereby getting the most food.
  3. Different bob styles may help lizards select appropriate mates within their own species.
  4. Different bob styles allow mothers to distinguish between their offspring and other juveniles.

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