Question Part 1
Why is a plant’s life cycle called an alternation of generations?
Why are seed plants the most successful terrestrial plants?
Describe the differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms. Give two examples of each.
Question Part 2
- How has the fertilization process of seed plants adapted to dry terrestrial conditions?
- stomata close to prevent water loss
- the evolution of a pollen tube eliminated the need for water in the transfer of sperm to the egg
- the pine needle has thicker skin, to retain water and a needle-like shape that reduces leaf area
- they evolved fruit which are wet and keep the seed hydrated
- Why does the plant invest so much energy in reproduction?
- if old plants did not generate new plants when the old plants died the species would die
- reproduction is an evolutionary artifact; plants no longer need to invest as much energy but they still have not lost that trait
- plants get too woody as they age and can’t transport nutrients efficiently; they need to reproduce to counteract the ageing process
- if there are not enough photosynthetic organisms in a specified area photosynthesis is less efficient; new plants are needed to keep up the rates of photosynthesis
- After fertilization what happens to the integument layer?
- it develops into the protective seed coat
- it develops into the fruit
- it decays; its purpose was to protect the ovary and now other structures will protect the seed
- it fills with water until it explodes propelling the seed into the air
- How is pollen transferred from the male reproductive structure to the female in gymnosperms and angiosperms?
- In both types of plants pollen is transferred only by the wind
- In gymnosperms the pollen is transferred by animals like squirrels which store the pollen to eat; in angiosperms the pollen is transferred by wind and rain
- In gymnosperms only wind transfers pollen, while in angiosperms animals like bees or birds also transfer pollen
- In both types of plants pollen is transferred by water and by animals
- Select the answer choice that correctly fills in the blanks for this explanation of the difference between how gymnosperms and angiosperms display their heterosporus nature.
Both gymnosperms and angiosperms are heterosporus: in gymnosperms the pollen and the megaspores are produced in separate while in angiosperms the pollen and the megaspores are produced in separate structures but within the same
- pinecones, flower
- ovule, pistel
- sporangiums, fruit
- gametes, anther
- Which of the following is NOT one of the differences between dicots and monocots?
- dicots have two cotyledons while monocots’ have one
- dicots’ sepals and petals are in multiples of four or five while monocots’ are in multiples of three
- dicots’ vascular tissue in the stem is arranged in rings; monocots’ vascular tissue is arranged in scattered bundles
- dicots have uncovered seeds while monocots have fruit around their seeds
- What happens to the sperm nuclei that do not fertilize the egg to form a zygote?
- they fuse with the polar nuclei of the egg and form the endosperm nucleus
- they form the wings that allow the fruit to disseminate
- they move to another egg and form a zygote with the second egg
- they die and do not fuse with any nuclei
- Why must the pollen develop the pollen tube?
- without it the pollen can not separate from the egg produced by the same reproductive structure and neither the pollen nor the egg are able to combine with the gametes of other plants and form seeds
- without it the pollen does not begin meiosis and does not produce nuclei that can fertilize eggs
- without it the pollen is too heavy to be carried by the wind and can not reach female reproductive structures and pollinate them
- without it the pollen nucleus can not travel to and fertilize the egg and it traveled all the way to the female reproductive structure and didn’t accomplish anything
Questions Part 3
- What will the radicle become as the seed develops into an adult plant?
- the root
- the flower
- the leaf
- the stem
- Why do plants put so many nutrients in fruit when the fruit does not provide nutrients to the growing seed?
- the fruit stores nutrients that the parent plant will use in the winter when there is less sunlight for performing photosynthesis
- as the fruit decomposes it fertilizes the soil in which the seed will grow
- the fruit helps disseminate the seeds by attracting animals that carry the fruit far from the plant
- the fruit attracts insects which pollinate the flower; otherwise the seed would
- Which of the following was NOT one of the seed arrangements you observed in the fruit?
- many seeds are arranged on the outside of the fruit
- a single seed is exposed on the top of the fruit, the fleshy part is uniformly distributed underneath the seed
- a single seed is surrounded by the fleshy part of the fruit
- many seeds are distributed throughout the fleshy part of the fruit
- Why are stone cells found in pears and not in berries?
- stone cells are only found in fruits with peels and berries don’t have peels
- stone cells are only found in fruit that grows on trees and most berries grow on bushes
- stone cells protect seeds and pears have more seeds than berries
- stone cells make fruit firm and berries are softer than pears
What is the difference between pollination and fertilization?
- What was the range of number of seeds in the different fruits that you examined?
- Where were the seeds located in each fruit?