Assignment 1: C and Unix Warmup Solution

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Description

Overview and Objectives

In Assignment 1, you will write a simple program that exercises several features of the C programming language and of the Unix operating system and programming environment. These features will prove useful for future CS

350 programming assignments this semester, and for subsequent C/Unix systems projects. In particular, you will:

  • Write a simple makefile that builds an appropriately named executable program and cleans generated files out of a top-level directory. Your makefile will support separate compilation of code into object files, and will link them together in a separate step into an executable. You may have created similar makefiles for CS 240 or other prior classes.

  • Write code to traverse and extract command line arguments within a C program.

  • Write code to find and use an environment variable.

  • Incorporate timing code into a C program.

  • Use a random number generator to build input cases.

  • Read and write data from and to Unix text files.

  • Use malloc() to acquire dynamically allocated memory (and free() to return it).

  • Use Unix pipes to transfer input data from the output of one program to a program that reads from stdin.

  • Use I/O redirection to send data from a program that writes to stdout and stderr into two different output files.

  • Build flexibility into your program (in this case, for example, by using files or standard input and output for I/O).

  • Check all input parameters and return values of system calls; report and handle all errors and invalid arguments appropriately.

  • Apply the naming conventions for directories, executables, and submitted archive files that we will use throughout the semester.

  • Structure and name your assignment directories and files in the only acceptable CS 350 way, for submission to Blackboard.

  • Follow verbose detailed directions!

Specification

You will write two programs that compile into two executables, one for sorting integers, and one for generating random integers to sort.

Your generator program will generate a sequence of random positive integers according to parameters specified on the command line. Your sorter program will read a sequence of integers, sort them, and write them out in sorted

order. Details of each mode appear below.

Sorter

The sorter reads a sequence of integers from standard input or from a file and outputs three different things:

  • the sorted values, to standard output (stdout) by default, or to an output file (if one is specified by the user)

  • a report about the counts of a few of the integers in the input, written to standard output by default, or to an output file if one is specified by the user

  • the elapsed time of the program, written to standard error (stderr).

To sort, you should call the qsort() C library function. Read the man pages or online documentation to determine how to prepare the data for qsort(), and how to call the function. Using new library and system call functions is

fundamentally important to becoming an effective systems programmer. Sorted values should appear one per line of output, in text format. Duplicate values in the input should appear in the output.

Your program should count and report the number of occurrences of integers that correspond to the ASCII value of letters in the Linux userid of the person running the program. An example report for user mlewis appears below.

m 109 5

l 108 3

e 101 6

w 119 7

i 105 2

s 115 5

The output should appear exactly as above; the userid characters (no matter whether they are lowercase letters, capital letters, or digits) appear in the order they appear in the userid, one per line. Each character is followed on each line by the ASCII value of the letter and then a count of the number of times that ASCII value appeared in the input. One tab character (‘\t’) should separate the letter and the ASCII value, and one more should separate the ASCII value and the count. Lines should contain no trailing whitespace, other than a single newline character (‘\n’);

Sometimes we will build programs that check your output automatically. If it is not formatted exactly according to specifications, then either we have to take off way too many points, or grading becomes much more difficult. Let’s get used to specifying (me) and producing (you) precisely formatted output.

Whether the program uses files or standard input and output depends on command line options, as described in more detail under the program command line options below.

Your program should also report the time elapsed, in seconds (with a decimal part that includes precision to the microsecond) of your program. Timing should be done within your code, not from the shell. Start the timing after parsing command line arguments, and stop the timing after writing the last bit of output (other than time elapsed). Report the elapsed time on stderr, not on stdout.

The input to your program begins with a non-negative integer that specifies how many positive integers will follow and will need sorting. This value will appear by itself on the first line of the input file, or will be the first thing that appears on stdin (depending on where the program is getting its input). Make sure this value falls within the acceptable range (see below under –n). The positive integers to be sorted follow, one per line, in text format (i.e. not binary). Text format can be read directly by scanf() (among other functions), and written using fprintf() (among other functions).

You may assume that the input contains valid positive integers only, and ends with a Control-D, the Linux EOF character. Your program should check that the input contains exactly the right number of values, in range, and exit with an appropriate and informative error message if it does not.

Please do not prompt the user for values; you should assume that the user knows how to use the program. You may include instructions after printing a “usage string” in response to “prog1sort –u” if you wish.

Generator

Your generator program writes randomly generated integers to standard output (by default), or to a file (if specified by the user). The integers themselves should be preceded by the number of integers that will follow, should appear one integer per output line, separated only by a single newline character (‘\n’). This specification is intended to match the input format that the sorter program expects. The number of integers and the range within

which they fall are specified on the command line (see below), or with default values (also specified below). Your generator program should be compatible with your sorter program in the sense that your sorter should successfully read and sort integers produced by your generator.

Interface, Options, and Parameters

Your programs should support the following interfaces:

prog1sorter [-u] [-n <num-integers>] [-m <min-int>] [-M <max-int>]

[-i <input-file-name>] [-o <output-file-name>] [-c <count-file-name>]

prog1generator [- u] [ -n <num-integers>] [ -m <min-int>] [-M <max-int>] [-s <seed>] [-o <output-file-name>]

Brackets indicate that all the arguments are optional; your program should support a replaceable default for each, as specified and described below. The user may specify options in any order. The meaning of each argument follows:

-u

Print a usage string for your program on stderr and then exit. If –u appears anywhere on the command line, the program should ignore all other arguments, print the usage string, and exit.

-n <num-integers>

Your generator program should generate <num-integers> random integers.

Your sorter program should read (at most) the first <num-integers> values from the input file (or from standard input), sort them, and write them out to the output file (or standard output).

If the input file contains more than <num-integers> values, your program should simply ignore the rest. If the input indicates that N integers reside in the input file, but the file contains fewer, you should sort only the ones that appear in the input. If the user specifies the -n flag to indicate the number of integers to be sorted, the first number in the input stream (whether from a file or from stdin) still also indicates the number of integers that follow. Your program should check that the two values are identical and exit with an informative error message if they are not.

For both programs, the minimum value for <num-integers> is 0. The default value for <num-integers> is 100. The maximum value for <num-integers> is 1,000,000. If the user specifies an out-of-range value for <num-integers> (less than 0 or greater than 1,000,000), the program should print an informative error message to stderr and exit immediately.

-m <min-int>

Your generator program should generate integers no smaller than <min-int>.

Your sorter program should check for integers in the input that have a value less than <min-int>, and halt with an informative error message as soon as the first one appears.

The default and minimum acceptable value for <min-int> is 1.

-M <max-int>

Your generator program should generate integers no larger than <max-int>.

Your sorter program should check for integers in the input have a value greater than <max-int>, and halt with an informative error message as soon as the first one appears.

The default value for <max-int> is 255. The maximum value for <max-int> is 1,000,000. <max-int> must not be less than <min-int>.

-s <seed>

By default, your generator program should seed the random number generator with a value derived from reading the system clock. If the user specifies the –s option, then your program should instead seed the random number generator with <seed>. You may assume that <seed> is an unsigned long (and pass it directly to srand()). (When writing code that produces pseudo-random values for testing, seeding the random number generator with a time value is good practice. When debugging your code, you often want the same random values to be produced for every run, so that the same behavior occurs each run. This option allows you to select whether the numbers are pseudo-random or deterministic, on the command line.)

Note that the –s option is not allowed for the sorter program.

-i <input-file-name>

By default, your sorter program should read input from stdin. If –i is specified on the command line, it should instead read input from the file named <input-file-name>.

Note that the –i option is not supported by the generator program.

-o <output-file-name>

By default, your programs should write output to stdout. If –o is specified on the command line, it should instead write output to the file named <output-file-name>. Your programs should overwrite the contents of <output-file-name> if it exists when your program is invoked.

-c <count-file-name>

As described above, your sorter should write the ASCII value and a count of the number of instances of each letter in the Unix username of the person running the program. (Do not hardcode your own userid into your program!) By default, your sorter program should write these values and counts to stdout. If the user specifies the –c option, then your program should write the counts to <count-file-name>.

Note that the generator program does not support the –c option.

If the user specifies an option that your program does not support (-z for example), your program should print the usage string to standard error (stderr), and exit. If the user does not specify an argument where one is expected, the program should likewise report the problem, print the usage string to stderr, and then exit. You may assume that file names do not begin with a dash, and that the user specifies no negative numbers on the command line. Thus, you may assume that every command line option that begins with a dash (‘-‘) corresponds to an option to your program.

Additional Requirements

In addition to specifying the interface for running your program (above), I will often impose some requirements about how you need to implement the assignment. I will try to be clear about “suggestions” vs. “requirements”; when the assignment description does not make the distinction clear, please ask. Requirements will likely appear in the grading rubric.

This assignment’s internal requirements include:

  • Any array that you use must be dynamically allocated, using malloc() (or some form of malloc()).

  • Check that all command line input parameters fall within specified bounds. (This is an implicit requirement for all future assignments, unless otherwise stated.)

  • Whenever appropriate, check the return value from system calls and library calls, and take appropriate action. When a system call sets errno and the error string, you should report that error message to the user. See below for more information about this. (This is an implicit requirement for all future assignments.)

  • Some Additional Information

You may or may not already know how to parse command line arguments, access environment variables to determine the userid, generate random numbers, time your program from within, allocate memory dynamically, and do the other things that this assignment asks. The text below provides some information about the names of functions and system calls that you should investigate. This is not necessarily an exhaustive list, nor do you necessarily have to use every one of these functions. Sometimes they will point you to other functions that you may prefer, and sometimes you may decide to do things differently.

Please get used to investigating function and system call usage with man and google, but please also ask us for help if you need it!

Parsing command line arguments

You may decide to parse command line arguments “by hand,” or you may decided to learn and use getopt(). To get started, you should know that command line arguments are made available to a C programmer through parameters to main().

int main(int argc, char **argv) {

The parameter argc contains a count of the number of command line arguments, and argv contains a pointer to an array of pointers to the arguments, each of which is a null terminated character string. Using the man page and Google for argc, argv, getopt(), and atoi() or strtoul() (to convert character string to an integer or to an unsigned long, respectively) should set you on the right path toward parsing command line arguments properly for all of our assignments.

Reading environment variables

Actually, the full interface to main() is:

int main(int argc, char **argv, char *envp[]) {

Note that “char **p” and “char *p[]” are equivalent. I picked the second form for envp just to be different from the argv parameter. The userid of the person running your program is held in the environment variable $USER. Run the following command to verify that:

$ echo $USER

Traverse and print the values stored in envp until you find the one that includes the user name. To get the value associated with the $USER variable, you may want to use strcmp() and/or strtok(); these functions are cool, but probably overkill in this case. Alternatively, you could simply move a pointer just past the equals sign in the appropriate envp array; the rest of that string is the user id you will need. Even better, investigate getenv() and avoid this stuff altogether. To exercise your C muscles, dig out $USER by hand; for the most elegant code, use getenv(). You decide.

Generating random numbers

Investigate srand() and rand(). Calling srand() seeds your random number generator with an initial value. Passing the same integer every time facilitates debugging, because the sequence of random numbers will then be common across multiple runs of the program. After debugging, you should seed the random number generator with a time value read from the system clock. Investigate gettimeofday(), which you can also use to time your program.

Timing your program

Investigate the timeval struct, gettimeofday(), and difftime() to learn how to time your program from within. You will need to include time.h. Man pages and most (good) information about system and library calls will tell you which header files to include for each function you wish to use. If the compiler complains that it cannot find a function, you may not have included the necessary header file appropriately. Note that this assignment asks you to put your timing code in a separate source code (.c) file and have it built into a separate object code (.o) file. You will be able to include this code in all future assignments, whenever necessary. See below under “Separate Compilation…”.

Reading and writing files

Use your favorite way of reading input from text files and stdin. I suggest scanf() and fscanf(). For output, use fprintf().

Allocating memory dynamically

The malloc() function takes as an argument the size of the memory being requested. It returns a pointer to that memory. To use malloc() properly, you will need to also investigate the sizeof() function, and know how to cast a pointer to one type into a pointer to another. Remember to always check the return value from malloc() and (just about) every other function you call. If malloc()’s return value indicates an error, your program should exit gracefully. Your code is likely to include something like this:

int *myints;

myints = (int *) malloc (n * sizeof(int)); /* check the return value here! */

Reporting Error Messages

Some system calls and library functions set a global variable called errno. If an error occurs within a system call that sets that variable, you can print a descriptive message by calling the function perror(), which takes a pointer to a character string as an argument. It is common, therefore, to include something like the following:

if (myints == NULL) {

perror(“Error with myints: ”);

exit(1);

}

You may also decide to use the assert() function, which can shorten code. Google it.

Code Structure

All source code, header files, and supporting files should be located under a single top-level directory named ProgNLastname_userid, where ‘N’ is replaced by the assignment number (in this case 1), “Lastname” is replaced by your last name, and userid is your login id. For example, my top-level directory for this assignment would be Prog1Lewis_mlewis. This will help us organize 70+ submissions and automate grading.

Place a single makefile in your top level directory that builds all object code (that is, “.o files”), libraries, and executables. Unless otherwise specified, please have these generated files reside directly within the top-level directory, not within subdirectories. (In other words, even though it may be better practice for larger software systems, please do not build executables into a subdirectory named Prog1Lewis_mlewis/bin, for example.)

Your makefile should generate all necessary files in response to a simple “make” command, with no command line arguments, executed within the top level directory.

Your makefile should remove all executables, .o files, and generated libraries, when the user runs “make clean”.

Separate Compilation and Executable Naming

To facilitate grading, all of your submissions must have the same name and support the same command line arguments, which I will typically specify for you in assignment descriptions. Your makefile should build the executables for this Assignment 1 into files named prog1sorter, and prog1generator.

You should use separate compilation to build multiple .o files, one per .c file. Those .o files should then be linked together into an executable in a separate step in your makefile.

Your two programs should share some command line parsing code, however you see fit. Each program supports the same arguments for setting maximum and minimum values, so code that does that should not appear in both the sorter and the generator. Instead, it should appear on a .c file that both programs use, so you could change a single value (the largest allowable integer, for example) in one place, and have it be reflected in both programs after you have rebuilt them using make. (Note, however, that the allowable command line arguments for the sorter and generator are not exactly matched.)

The –c option tells gcc to generate an object code file, omitting –c tells gcc to generate an executable, and gcc can be invoked with .o files, which it then passes to the linker to create an executable. Therefore, your makefile should have separate rules for each source file, and one rule per executable.

Playing with Pipes and I/O Redirection

Investigate (again, man and Google are your friends!) I/O redirection and pipes, along with the Unix command cat.

If you have implemented your code properly, you should be able to invoke your generator program, have it write to standard output, and then on the same command line pipe that output to the input of your sorter program.

Something like this (with command line arguments specified if you want to replace defaults):

$ prog1generator | prog1sorter

You should also be able to redirect the output of your program to a file… you should be able to do this on the command line, not just within the program using the –o option. Try this:

$ prog1generator > myfile.txt

Now use myfile.txt as the input to another run:

$ prog1sorter –i myfile.txt

You could do the same thing as follows:

$ cat myfile.txt | prog1sorter

Make sure this kind of stuff works; we will use it for testing. One thing that could be a problem is if you have not separated the output that is supposed to be written to stderr, from the output to be written to stdout. Find out how to redirect stderr output to a file.


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