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  • To learn about polymorphism by using function overloading and operator overloading in C++

Data Structure

Create a class in C++ to implement Polynomials. This class should support functionality to add, subtract, and multiply using both functions as well as by overloading these operators: +, -, *. The operands for these operations can be two Polynomialsor a Polynomialand a double. Also include the functionality to evaluate the result of a Polynomialat a given x.

The internal details of the implementation of the class are your choice.

Input Format

Each testcase will consist of noperations. Each operation is either an addition (‘a’), subtraction (‘s’), multiplication (‘m’), or evaluation (‘e’). The first three operations take two Polynomialsas input and output a Polynomial. These operations can also take a Polynomialand a doubleas input, however the doublewill also be given in the polynomial format with one constant term. Polynomial evaluation takes a Polynomialand a doubleas input and outputs a double.

The testcase format is as follows:

<number of operations>

<inputs for op_1>

<inputs for op_2>




<inputs for op_n>

// → “n”

A Polynomial is represented in the following form in the testcase:

<number of terms>

<exponent_1> <coefficient_1>

<exponent_2> <coefficient_2>




<exponent_m> <coefficient_m>

// → “m”

The exponent will be a non-negative integer. The coefficient will be a double. Note that the exponents can be in anyorder.

Output Format

The output for addition, subtraction, multiplication is a Polynomial, while for evaluation it is a double.


  • Each term of the Polynomial has to be printed in the format:


  • The terms of the Polynomialhave to be printed in increasing order of their exponents.

  • If there exists a constant term, print that with “x^0”.

  • The format for the whole Polynomial is


  • The sign will be ‘+’ or ‘-’ depending on the sign of the coefficient following it.

  • Only termswith non-zero coefficients have to be printed.

  • All coefficients should be printed with a fixed precision of 3 decimal digits (see note at the end).

  • An “empty” Polynomialshould be printed as a blank line

Incorrect way to print Polynomial

Corresponding correct representation

6x^4 + 3x^2

3.000x^2 + 6.000x^4

5.00 – 10.0x^3

5.000x^0 – 10.000x^3

5.000 + -6x^2

5.000x^0 – 6.000x^2

4x + 0x^2



  • Each doublehas to be printed with a fixed precision of 3 decimal digits (see note at the the end).


  • There will be a maximum of 100 operations per testcase.

  • The maximum degree of any Polynomialtaken as input will be 10.

Sample Testcase


  • Number of operations

  • Addition (first operation)

  • Number of terms in the first polynomial 1 2 2x^1

3 4 4x^3

3 Number of terms in the next (second) polynomial 5 -10 -10x^5

  • 7 7x^2

  • -6 -6x^3

  • Evaluation (second operation)

  • Number of terms in the polynomial 1 2 2x^1

  • 4 4x^3

5 6 6x^5

  1. Value of x at which polynomial has to be evaluated


2.000x^1 + 7.000x^2 – 2.000x^3 – 10.000x^5


Design Submission Format

For the design submission on Moodle, please submit a .tar.gz file named as your roll number.


All ​doubles ​have to be printed with a fixed precision of 3 decimal digits. This includes the coefficients of the ​Polynomials​as well the result of the evaluation operation. Take a look at the example below.


How it should be displayed







This style of printing can be set by using the following statements before any “cout”. You only need to write these statements once.


std::cout << std::fixed;

Fun Challenge (not evaluated)

Extend the polynomial to support complex numbers.