Program 2: Operating System Scheduler Solution

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Description

1. Purpose

This assignment implements and compares two CPU scheduling algorithms, the round-robin scheduling and the multilevel feedback-queue scheduling. The step-by-step procedure to complete this assignment is:

    1. Observe the behavior of the ThreadOS Scheduler which uses a Java-based round-robin scheduling algorithm. Consider why it may not be working strictly in a round-robin fashion.

    1. Redesign the ThreadOS Scheduler using Thread.suspend(

) and Thread.resume( ) so that it will rigidly work in a round-robin fashion.

    1. Implement a multi-level feedback-queue scheduler for ThreadOS.

    1. Compare the rigid round-robin and multi-level feedback-queue schedulers using test thread programs.

  1. Java Priority Scheduling

The ThreadOS Scheduler (see Scheduler.java) implements a naive round-robin scheduler. Given that ThreadOS is a java application and ThreadOS applications are Java threads, the ThreadOS scheduler is subject to the underlying Java Virtual Machine (JVM) Scheduler. Given this, there is no guarantee that a thread with a higher priority will immediately preempt the current thread. In its default implementation Scheduler.java does not strictly enforce a round-robin scheduling.

We can however modify the ThreadOS scheduler to enforce a rigid round-robin algorithm. By using the Thread.suspend( ) and Thread.resume( ) methods we can force threads to block or be ready for execution. Note that these methods have been deprecated and we must use them quite carefully in order to avoid deadlocks. For more information on these methods you can reference the documentation here: Java 2 Platform, API documentation .

3. Suspend and Resume

For this assignment you will use the Thread.suspend( ) and Thread.resume( ) methods in the Scheduler class of ThreadOS. You should avoid using Thread.suspend( ) and Thread.resume( ) in all of your

future ThreadOS programs or in other java classes in this assignment.

The suspend() method suspends a target thread, whereas the resume() method resumes (moves the thread to a ready state) a suspended thread. To implement a rigid round-robin CPU scheduling algorithm, you will modify

the ThreadOS Scheduler to dequeue the front user thread from the ready list and resume it by invoking the resume() method. When the quantum has expired you will suspend the thread it with the suspend() method.

The suspend() and resume() methods may cause a deadlock if a suspended thread holds a lock and a runnable thread tries to acquire this lock. To avoid these deadlocks, one must pay close attention when using them with the synchronized, wait( ) and notify( ) keywords. You will notice that the Scheduler Class of ThreadOS uses the synchronized keywords for the peek method. Don’t remove or put additional synchronized keywords in the code, otherwise ThreadOS may deadlock.

When you compile Java programs that use deprecated methods such

as suspend( ) and resume(), you must compile them with the -deprecation flag. You will notice that the javac compiler will print out some warning messages when you do this. This is expected, just ignore them in this assignment.

uw1-320-00% javac -deprecation Scheduler.java

./Scheduler.java:128: warning: resume() in java.lang.Thread has been deprecated

currentThread.resume( );

^

./Scheduler.java:136: warning: suspend() in java.lang.Thread has been deprecated

currentThread.suspend( );

^

  1. warnings uw1-320-00%

4. Structure of TheadOS Scheduler

The scheduling algorithm implemented in ThreadOS, (i.e., Scheduler.java) is similar that the one presented in class (see lecture slides). Instead of a processor control block (PCB), the data structure used to manage each user thread is the thread control block (TCB).

Thread Control Block (TCB.java)

The implementation of the TCB includes four private data members:

  1. A reference to the corresponding thread object (thread).

  1. A thread identifier (tid).

  2. A parent thread identifier (pid).

  1. The terminated variable to indicate whether the corresponding thread has been terminated.

The TCB constructor simply initializes those private data members with

arguments passed to it. The TCB class also provides four public methods to

retrieve its private data members: getThread( ), getTid( ), getPid( ),

andgetTerminated( ). In addition, it has the setTerminated() method which

sets terminated true.

Private data members of Scheduler.java

In addition to three private data members from the lecture slide example, we have two more data such as a boolean array – tids[] and a constant

  • DEFAULT_MAX_THREADS, both related to TCB.

Data members

Descriptions

private Vector queue;

a list of all active threads, (to be specific, TCBs).

a time slice allocated to each user thread

private int timeSlice;

execution

private static final int

the unit is millisecond. Thus 1000 means 1

DEFAULT_TIME_SLICE = 1000;

second.

Each array entry indicates that the corresponding

private boolean[] tids;

thread ID has been used if the entry value is true.

private static final int

DEFAULT_MAX_THREADS = 10000;

tids[] has 10000 elements

Methods of Scheduler.java

The following shows all the methods of Scheduler.java.

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Methods

private void initTid( int maxThreads )

private int getNewTid( )

private boolean returnTid( int tid )

public int getMaxThreads( )

public TCB getMyTcb( )

public Scheduler(int quantum, int maxThreads)

private void schedulerSleep( )

public TCB addThread( Thread t )

public boolean deleteThread( )

public void sleepThread( int milliseconds )

public void run( )

Descriptions

allocates the tid[] array with

a maxThreads number of elements

finds an tid[] array element whose value is false, and returns its index as a new thread ID.

sets the corresponding tid[] element,

(i.e., tid[tid]) false. The return value is false if tid[tid] is already false, (i.e., if this tid has not been used), otherwise true.

returns the length of the tid[] array, (i.e., the available number of threads).

finds the current thread’s TCB from the active thread queue and returns it

receives two arguments: (1) the time slice allocated to each thread execution and (2) the maximal number of threads to be spawned, (namely the length of tid[]). It creates an active thread queue and initializes the tid[] array

puts the Scheduler to sleep for a given time quantum

allocates a new TCB to this thread t and adds the TCB to the active thread queue. This new TCB receives the calling thread’s id as its parent id.

finds the current thread’s TCB from the active thread queue and marks its TCB as terminated. The actual deletion of a terminated TCB is performed inside the run( ) method, (in order to prevent race conditions).

puts the calling thread to sleep for a given time quantum.

This is the heart of Scheduler. The difference from the lecture slide includes: (1) retrieving a next available TCB rather than a thread from the active thread list, (2) deleting it if it has been marked as “terminated”, and (3)

starting the thread if it has not yet been

started. Other than this difference, the

Scheduler repeats retrieving a next available

TCB from the list, raising up the

corresponding thread’s priority, yielding CPU

to this thread with sleep( ), and lowering the

thread’s priority.

The scheduler itself is started by ThreadOS Kernel. It creates a thread queue that maintains all user threads invoked by the SysLib.exec( String args[]

) system call. Upon receiving this system call, ThreadOS Kernel instantiates a user thread and calls the scheduler’s addThread( Thread t ) method. A

new TCB is allocated to this thread and enqueued in the scheduler’s thread list. The scheduler repeats an infinite while loop in its run method. It picks up a next available TCB from the list. If the thread in this TCB has not yet been activated (but instantiated), the scheduler starts it first. It thereafter raises up the thread’s priority to execute for a given time slice.

When a user thread calls SysLib.exit( ) to terminate itself, the Kernel calls the scheduler’s deleteThread( ) in order to mark this thread’s TCB as terminated. When the scheduler dequeues this TCB from the circular queue and finds out that it has been marked as terminated, it deletes this TCB.

5. Statement of Work

Part 1: Modifying Scheduler.java with suspend( ) and resume( )

To begin with, run the Test2b thread on our ThreadOS:

$ java boot

threadOS ver 1.0:

Type ? for help

threadOS: a new thread (thread=Thread[Thread-3,2,main] tid=0 pid=-1)

–>l Test2b

l Test2b

threadOS: a new thread (thread=Thread[Thread-6,2,main] tid=1 pid=0)

threadOS: a new thread (thread=Thread[Thread-8,2,main] tid=2 pid=1)

threadOS: a new thread (thread=Thread[Thread-10,2,main] tid=3 pid=1)

threadOS: a new thread (thread=Thread[Thread-12,2,main] tid=4 pid=1)

threadOS: a new thread (thread=Thread[Thread-14,2,main] tid=5 pid=1) threadOS: a new thread (thread=Thread[Thread-16,2,main] tid=6 pid=1) Thread[a] is running

….

Test2b spawns five child threads from TestThread2b, each

named Thread[a], Thread[b], Thread[c], Thread[d], and Thread[e]. They print

out “Thread[name] is running” every 0.1 second. If the round-robin schedule is rigidly enforced to give a 1-second time quantum to each thread, you should see each thread printing out the same message about 10 times consecutively:

Thread[a] is running

Thread[a] is running

Thread[a] is running

Thread[a] is running

Thread[a] is running

Thread[a] is running

Thread[a] is running

Thread[a] is running

Thread[a] is running

Thread[a] is running

Thread[b] is running

Thread[b] is running

….

….

However, messages will be interleaved on your terminal. Now, modify

the ThreadOS Scheduler.java code using suspend() and resume() in order to force Round Robin behavior. The modifications will be the following:

  1. to remove setPriority(2) (line 96) from the addThread() method,

  1. to remove setPriority(6) (line 127) from the run( )method,

  2. to replace current.setPriority(4) (line 143) with current.resume( ),

  1. to remove current.setPriority(4) (line 148) from the run( ) method, and finally

  1. to repalce current.setPriority(2) (line 157) with current.suspend( ).

Compile Scheduler.java with javac, and thereafter test with Test2b.java if your Scheduler has implemented a rigid round-robin scheduling algorithm. If the Scheduler is working correctly, each TestThread2b thread should print out the same message 10 times consecutively.

Part 2: implementing a multilevel feedback queue (MFQS) scheduler

Modify Scheduler.java to implement a MFQS scheduler. The generic algorithm, for MFQS, is described in the textbook (section 5.3.6). The multilevel feedback queue scheduler operates according to the following specification:

  1. It has three queues, numbered from 0 to 2.

  2. A new thread’s TCB is always enqueued into Queue0.

  1. MFQS scheduler first executes all threads in Queue0 whose time quantum Q0 is half of the time quantum in Part 1’s round-robin scheduler, (i.e. Q0=500ms).

  1. If a thread in the Queue0 does not complete its execution for Queue0‘s time quantum, (Q0), then scheduler moves the corresponding TCB

to Queue1.

  1. If Queue0 is empty, it will execute threads in Queue1 whose time quantum is the same as the one in Part 1’s round-robin scheduler, (i.e. Q1=1000ms). However, in order to react new threads in Queue0 , your MFQS scheduler should execute a thread in queue 1 for

only Q0=500ms one-half the Queue1 time quantum and then check if Queue0 has new TCBs pending. If so, it will execute all threads in Queue0 first. The interrrupted thread will be resumed when all of the Queue0 threads are handled. The resumed thread will only be given the remaining part of its time quantum.

  1. If a thread in Queue1 does not complete its execution and was given a full Queue1‘s time quantum, (i.e., Q1 ), the scheduler then moves the TCB to Queue2 .

  1. If both Queue0 and Queue1 are empty, the MFQS schedulers will execute threads in Queue2 whose time quantum is a double of the one in Part 1’s round-robin scheduler, (i.e., Q2=2000ms). However, in order to react to threads with higher priority in Queue0 and Queue1, your scheduler should execute a thread in Queue2 for Q0 increments and check if Queue0 and Queue1 have new TCBs. The rest of the behavior is the same as that for Queue1.

  1. If a thread in Queue2 does not complete its execution for Queue2‘s time slice, (i.e., Q2 ), the scheduler puts it back to the tail of Queue2.

Again, compile your Scheduler.java and test with Test2b.java to assure that your Scheduler has implemented a multilevel feed back-queue scheduling algorithm.

Part 3: Conducting performance evaluations

Run Test2.java on both your round-robin and the multilevel feed back-queue scheduler.

$ java boot

threadOS ver 1.0:

Type ? for help

threadOS: a new thread (thread=Thread[Thread-3,2,main] tid=0 pid=-1) –>l Test2

Similar to Test2b, Test2 spawns five child threads from TestThread2b, each named Thread[a], Thread[b], Thread[c], Thread[d], and Thread[e]. They prints out nothing but their performance data upon their termination:

thread[b]: response time = 2012 turnaround time = 3111 execution time = 1099

thread[e]: response time = 5035 turnaround time = 5585 execution time = 550

….

The following table shows their CPU burst time:

Thread name

CPU burst (in milliseconds)

Thread[a]

5000

Thread[b]

1000

Thread[c]

3000

Thread[d]

6000

Thread[e]

500

Compare test performance results between Part 1 and Part 2. Discuss how and why the multilevel feed back-queue (MFQS) scheduler has performed better/worse than the round-robin scheduler.

  1. What to Turn In

    • Part 1:

  1. Your Scheduler.java (i.e. version with suspend/resume round robin)

    1. Execution output when running Test2b.java

  • Part 2:

    1. Your Scheduler.java (i.e. version with MFQS implemented)

    1. Execution output when running Test2b.java

  • Report (*.pdf or *.docx file and *.xlsx for spreadsheet Gantt charts)

    1. Clearly explain the design and algorigthm for Part 2. You may

want to use flowcharts or other software diagrams tools (e.g. DrawIO).

  1. Compare the test results between Part 1 and Part 2 using Test2.java. Discuss how and why your multilevel feed back-queue scheduler has performed better or worse than your round- robin scheduler. This is an important part of the assignment.

    1. Consider what would happen if you were to implement the part 2 based on FCFS rather than Round Robin. Your discussion may focus on what happens if you run Test2.java in this FCFS-based Queue2 (e.g. quantum=2000ms). Note: It is recommended that you build 3 different Gantt charts so that your execution performance numbers can clearly be visualized for your discussion.

  1. Grading Guide

Grading rubric is on Blackboard.

8. FAQ

Please consult the Program 2 FAQ on Blackboard before emailing the professor or the TA :-).