# Problem Set#5 Solution

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## Description

1. Let X = the number of requests you receive at your web site per minute, where X Poi(12). Each request, independently of all other requests, is equally likely to be routed to one of N web servers. Compute the expected number of web servers that will receive at least one request each during a minute. (Hint: there are a few ways to do this problem, but one way you might approach it is to first determine the conditional expectation of the number of web servers that receive at least one request each during a minute, conditioned on some fixed number, k, of requests during that minute. Then use that result to compute the unconditional expectation of the number of web servers that receive at least one request each during a minute.)

1. You go on a camping trip with two friends who each have a mobile phone. Since you are out in the wilderness, mobile phone reception isn’t very good. One friend’s phone will independently drop calls with 10% probability. Your other friend’s phone will independently drop calls with 25% probability. Say you need to make 6 phone calls, so you randomly choose one of the two phones and you will use that same phone to make all your calls (but you don’t know which has a 10% versus 25% chance of dropping calls). Of the first 3 (out of 6) calls you make, one of them is dropped. What is the conditional expected number of dropped calls in the 6 total calls you make (conditioned on having already had one of the first three calls dropped)?

1. You are developing medicine that sometimes has a desired eﬀect, and sometimes does not. With FDA approval, you are allowed to test your medicine on 9 patients. You observe that 7 have the desired outcome. Your belief as to the probability of the medicine having an eﬀect before running any experiments was Beta(2; 2).

1. What is the distribution for your belief of the probability of the medicine being eﬀective after the trial?

1. Use your distribution from (a) to calculate your confidence that the probability of the drug having an eﬀect is greater than 0.5. You may use scipy.stats or an online calculator.

1. You are designing a randomized algorithm that delivers one of two new drugs to patients who come to your clinic—each patient can only receive one of the drugs. Initially you know nothing about the eﬀectiveness of the two drugs. You are simultaneously trying to learn which drug is the best and, at the same time, cure the maximum number of people. To do so we will use the Thompson Sampling Algorithm.

Thompson Sampling Algorithm: For each drug we maintain a Beta distribution to represent the drug’s probability of being successful. Initially we assume that drug i has a probability of success: i Beta(1; 1).

When choosing which drug to give to the next patient we sample a value from each Beta and select the drug with the largest sampled value. We administer the drug, observe if the patient was cured, and update the Beta that represents our belief about the probability of the drug being successful. Repeat for the next patient.

1. Say you try the first drug on 7 patients. It cures 5 patients and has no eﬀect on 2. What is your belief about the drug’s probability of success, 1? Your answer should be a Beta.

 Method Description V = sampleBeta(a, b) Returns a real number value in the range [0, 1] with probability defined by a PDF of a Beta with parameters a and b. Gives drug i to the next patient. Returns a True if the drug was R = giveDrug(i) successful in curing the patient or False if it was not. Throws an error if i 2= f1; 2g. I = argmax(list) Returns the index of the largest value in the list.
1. Write pseudocode to administer either of the two drugs to 100 patients using Thompson’s Sam-pling Algorithm. Use functions from the table above. Your code should execute giveDrug 100 times.

1. After running Thompson Sampling Algorithm 100 times, you end up with the following Beta distributions:

1 Beta(11; 11), 2 Beta(76; 6).

What is the expected probability of success for each drug?

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Natasha Ong Problem Set #5 February 28, 2020

b)

1. We see that for 1, the parameters for a and b are the same, meaning the expected probability is in the middle. For 2 we see that the successes are much higher (given we started with Beta(1; 1)). Therefore, we see the following:

 E[ 1]= a = 11 = 0:5 a + b 22 a 76 E[ 2]= = = 0:93 a + b 82

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Natasha Ong Problem Set #5 February 28, 2020

1. A fair 6-sided die is repeatedly rolled until the total sum of all the rolls exceeds 300. Approximate (using the Central Limit Theorem) the probability that at least 80 rolls are necessary to reach a sum that exceeds 300.

1. Program A will run 20 algorithms in sequence, with the running time for each algorithm being independent random variables with mean = 46 seconds and variance = 100 seconds2. Program B will run 20 algorithms in sequence, with the running time for each algorithm being independent random variables with mean = 48 seconds and variance = 200 seconds2.

1. What is the approximate probability that Program A completes in less than 900 seconds?

1. What is the approximate probability that Program B completes in less than 900 seconds?

1. What is the approximate probability that Program A completes in less time than Program B?

1. We want P (B < 900). Thus we have the following:

 900 960 P(B < 900) = F(900) = ( p ) 4000 = 1 (0:9486) = 0:1711 c) Let C = A B N (920 960; 2000 + 4000) N ( 40; 6000). Since we want Program A to complete in less time than B, we want C < 0. ( 40) P(C<0)= 0 p = (0:516) 0:6985 6000
1. [Coding + Written] Stanford’s HCI class runs a massive online class that was taken by ten thousand students. The class used peer assessment to evaluate students’ work. We are going to use their data to learn more about peer graders. In the class, each student has their work evaluated by 5 peers and every student is asked to evaluate 6 assignments: five peers and the “control assignment” (the graders were unaware of which assignment was the control). All 10,000 students evaluated the same control assignment, and the scores they gave are in the file peerGrades.csv. You may use simulations to solve any part of this question.

Here are some rules that apply to all the coding questions:

• Write your answers in the relevant functions of the file cs109_pset5_hci.py, which you can download from the course website. Do not rename this file. For this question, submit only this file.

• Do not use global variables.

• You may define helper functions if you wish.

For written questions, write your answer in the PDF that you upload to Gradescope.

a. [Coding] What is the sample mean of the 10,000 grades to the control assignment? Implement the part_a function, which should return this quantity as a float.

For parts (b) and (c), you’ll need to run some simulations. To get credit from the autograder, you’re required to abide by the following guidelines:

• Run the algorithm for exactly 10,000 iterations.

• You’ll need to draw random samples with replacement from an array of grades. To do so, you must use the np.random.choice function, which you can call like so:

sample = np.random.choice(name-of-array, size-of-random-sample, replace=True). Do not use any other function to generate random samples.

• Use the np.mean, np.median, and np.var functions to calculate the mean, median, and variance of a list or numpy array.

1. [Coding] Students could be given a final score which is the mean of the 5 grades given by their peers. Imagine the control experiment had only received 5 peer-grades. What is the variance of the mean grade that the control experiment would have been given? Implement the part_b function, which should return this quantity as a float.

1. [Coding] Students could be given a final score which is the median of the 5 grades given by their peers. Suppose the control experiment had only received 5 peer-grades. What is the variance of the median grade that the control experiment would have been given? Implement the part_c function, which should return this quantity as a float.

1. [Written] Would you use the mean or the median of 5 peer grades to assign scores in the online version of Stanford’s HCI class? Hint: it might help to visualize the scores. Feel free to write code to help you answer this question, but for this question we’ll solely evaluate your written answer in the PDF that you upload to Gradescope.

1. [Coding + Written] In this problem you are going to learn how to use and misuse p-values for experiments that are called A/B tests. These experiments are ubiquitous. They are a staple of both scientific experiments and user interaction design.

Suppose you are working at Coursera on new ways of teaching a concept in probability. You have two diﬀerent learning activities activity1 and activity2 and you want to figure out which activity leads to better learning outcomes.

Over a two-week period, you randomly assign each student to be given either activity1 or activity2. You then evaluate each student’s learning outcomes by asking them to solve a set of problems. The data (the activity shown to each student and their measured learning outcomes) are found in the file learningOutcomes.csv.

For coding problems, write your answer in the relevant function of cs109_pset5_coursera.py. Follow the same coding guidelines as the previous coding problem (e.g. do not use global vari-ables). For written problems, write your answer in the PDF that gets submitted to Gradescope.

1. [Coding] What is the diﬀerence in sample means of learning outcomes between students who were given activity1 and students who were given activity2? Write your answer in the part_a function, which should return a float (i.e. the diﬀerence in sample means).

2. [Coding] Write code to estimate the p-value (using the bootstrap method) for the observed diﬀerence in means reported in part (a). In other words: assuming that the learning outcomes for students who had been given activity1 and activity2 were identically distributed, what is the probability that you could have sampled two groups of students such that you could have observed a diﬀerence of means as extreme, or more extreme, than the one calculated from your data in part (a)? Write your answer in the part_b function, which should return a float. Here are some guidelines to follow:

• Just like in the previous problem, you are required to use the np.random.choice method with replace=True to generate random samples.

• For the bootstrap algorithm, you should use 10,000 iterations, i.e. you should resample 10,000 times.

• If you have two lists a and b, you can create a new list containing all the elements of a followed by all the elements of b by writing a + b

Scientific journals have traditionally accepted an experiment’s result as “statistically significant” if the p-value is below 0.05. By definition, this standard means that 5% of findings published in these journals are in fact not true, but just false positives. The scientific community is beginning to move away from using arbitrary p-value thresholds to determine whether a result is publishable. For example, see this 2019 editorial in the journal Nature: https://www.nature. com/articles/d41586-019-00874-8.

You are now troubled by the p-value you obtained in part (b), so you decide to delve deeper. You investigate whether learning outcomes diﬀered based on the background experience of students. The file background.csv stores the background of each student as one of three labels: more experience, average experience, less experience.

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1. [Written] For each of the three backgrounds, calculate a diﬀerence in means in learning outcome between activity1 and activity2, and the p-value of that diﬀerence.

You’ll almost certainly need to write code in this question, and we’ve provided an optional_function that you can use, which gets called by our provided main method. However, we won’t grade any code for this part. We’ll only grade what you include in your answer PDF.

1. [Written] Your manager at Coursera is concerned that you have been “p-hacking,” which is also known as data dredging: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_dredging. In one sentence, explain why your results in part (c) are not the result of p-hacking.

1. We did not p-hack, since we did not perform the experiment/simulation multiple times and ONLY report the ones with a p-value low enough for the findings to be significant: we simply calculated the p-value ONCE and reported that value.