LAB 04 QUESTIONS SOLUTION

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Answer the questions below according to the lab specification. Write

your answers directly in this text file and submit it to complete the

lab.

PROBLEM 1: Memory Diagram

=========================

Examine the code in dog_diagram.c which uses a couple simple functions

with a struct.

,—-

|  1  #include <stdio.h>

|  2  typedef struct{

|  3    int age;

|  4    double weight;

|  5    char name[8];

|  6  } dog_t;

|  7

|  8  void init_dog(dog_t *d){

|  9    strcpy(d->name, “Rolf”);

| 10    d->age = 0;

| 11    d->weight = 5.0;

| 12    ////// POSITION A

| 13    return;

| 14  }

| 15

| 16  void birthday(int num, dog_t *d){

| 17    int next = d->age + num;

| 18    if(next < 3){

| 19      d->weight += 10.0;

| 20    }

| 21    ////// POSITION B

| 22    d->age = next;

| 23    return;

| 24  }

| 25

| 26  int main(){

| 27    dog_t dog;

| 28    init_dog(&dog);

| 29    double curwgt = dog.weight;

| 30    birthday(2, &dog);

| 31    printf(“%s gained %f pounds\n”,

| 32           dog.name, dog.weight-curwgt);

| 33    return 0;

| 34  }

`—-

Fill in the memory diagrams below for the layout of memory if

execution stops at the positions given in the comments.

POSITION A

———-

,—-

| |————+————-+——-+——-|

| | Frame      | Sym         | Addr  | Value |

| |————+————-+——-+——-|

| | main()     | curwgt      |       |       |

| | line:28    | dog.name[7] |       |       |

| |            |             |       |       |

| |            |             |       |       |

| |            |             |       |       |

| |            |             |       |       |

| |            |             |       |       |

| |            |             |       |       |

| |            |             |       |       |

| |            |             | #1208 |       |

| |            | dog.weight  | #1200 |   5.0 |

| |————+————-+——-+——-|

| | init_dog() | d           |       |       |

| | line:??    |             |       |       |

| |————+————-+——-+——-|

`—-

POSITION B

———-

,—-

| |————+————+——-+——-|

| | Frame      | Sym        | Addr  | Value |

| |————+————+——-+——-|

| | main()     | curwgt     |       |       |

| | line:??    |            |       |       |

| |            |            |       |       |

| |            |            |       |       |

| |            |            |       |       |

| |            |            |       |       |

| |            |            |       |       |

| |            |            |       |       |

| |            |            |       |       |

| |            |            | #1208 |       |

| |            | dog.weight | #1200 |       |

| |————+————+——-+——-|

| | birthday() |            | #1192 |       |

| | line:??    |            |       |       |

| |            |            |       |       |

| |————+————+——-+——-|

|

`—-

======================================

The file badmem.c has functions main() and set_pn() in it but has a

bad memory problem associated with it.  A sample compile and run is as

follows.

,—-

| > a.out

| Segmentation fault (core dumped)

`—-

A

~

Below is some output from Valgrind. Explain the errors that are

identified by Valgrind and inspect the source code of badmem.c to

discover the source of the error. Clearly identify whether there is a

problem in main() or set_pn().

,—-

| > valgrind ./a.out

| ==15611== Memcheck, a memory error detector

| ==15611== Copyright (C) 2002-2017, and GNU GPL’d, by Julian Seward et al.

| ==15611== Using Valgrind-3.13.0 and LibVEX; rerun with -h for copyright info

| ==15611== Command: ./a.out

| ==15611==

| ==15611== Use of uninitialised value of size 8

| ==15611==    at 0x10873B: set_pn (badmem.c:40)

| ==15611==    by 0x1086B8: main (badmem.c:20)

| ==15611==

| ==15611== Invalid write of size 4

| ==15611==    at 0x10873B: set_pn (badmem.c:40)

| ==15611==    by 0x1086B8: main (badmem.c:20)

| ==15611==  Address 0x5 is not stack’d, malloc’d or (recently) free’d

| ==15611==

| ==15611==

| ==15611== Process terminating with default action of signal 11 (SIGSEGV): dumping core

| ==15611==  Access not within mapped region at address 0x5

| ==15611==    at 0x10873B: set_pn (badmem.c:40)

| ==15611==    by 0x1086B8: main (badmem.c:20)

| ==15611==  If you believe this happened as a result of a stack

| ==15611==  possible), you can try to increase the size of the

| ==15611==  main thread stack using the –main-stacksize= flag.

| ==15611==  The main thread stack size used in this run was 8720384.

| ==15611==

| ==15611== HEAP SUMMARY:

| ==15611==     in use at exit: 0 bytes in 0 blocks

| ==15611==   total heap usage: 0 allocs, 0 frees, 0 bytes allocated

| ==15611==

| ==15611== All heap blocks were freed — no leaks are possible

| ==15611==

| ==15611== For counts of detected and suppressed errors, rerun with: -v

| ==15611== Use –track-origins=yes to see where uninitialised values come from

| ==15611== ERROR SUMMARY: 2 errors from 2 contexts (suppressed: 0 from 0)

| Segmentation fault (core dumped)

`—-

B

~

Fix badmem.c so that it works correctly. Your fix should NOT change

the prototype for the set_pn() function but can make other adjustments

to local variables.

PROBLEM 3: Best Score in File

=============================

A grading file has scores for an exam formatted as in the following

example:

,—-

| Darlene 91.0

| Angela  76.5

| Elliot  94.5

| Tyrell  87.5

| Dom     70.0

| Phillip 55.5

`—-

The names of students are the first item followed by a numeric score

on their programming exam.  Write `main()’ function in the file

`best_score.c’ which

– Opens the file

– Reads through all the contents

– Prints out the name and score of the highest scorer

Make use of the following small struct in this exercise to ease the

process of copying information as indicated.

,—-

| typedef struct {

|   char name[128];               // name of student

|   double score;                 // score on exam

| // struct which allows assignment of name/score such as in

| //   printf(“best is now: %s %f\n”, best.name, best.score);

`—-

– Don’t forget to close the file

– Study the session below for special cases such as empty files

,—-

| > gcc -g best_score.c

| > ./a.out

| usage: ./a.out <filename>

| <filename> should have columns of names, numbers as in

| Darlene 91.0

| Angela  76.5

| Elliot  94.5

| Tyrell  87.5

| Dom     70.0

| Phillip 55.5

| > ./a.out scores1.txt

| Best score: Elliot 94.500000

| > ./a.out scores2.txt

| Best score: Student13 90.800000

| > ./a.out scores3.txt

| Best score: Student43 99.300000

| > ./a.out scores-empty.txt

| file was empty

| > ./a.out no-such-file.txt

| could not open the file

`—-