# Homework 1 Extracting Data from a CSV file Solution

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## Description

This assignment is based on a class of problem solved in enterprise computing; extraction, transfor-mation, and loading. This is often referred to as ETL. The inputs will be data extracted from a leading aviation industry data and consulting firm, GCR. (See GCR.com for additional data.) The data is in a well known format where each data element is separated from the previous and following data elements by using a comma. It should be noted that this method of data manipulation is extremely common. The explicit order of the data fields and the desired outputs are defined in the “Specifications”.

• Objectives

The objectives of this assignment are to demonstrate proficiency in file I/O, data structures, and data trans-formation using C language resources. Specifically, you will read in data from a text file, use that data to populate a data structure, and print that data to STDOUT by accessing the newly populated structure.

1.1 Extraction

The first part of ETL is extraction. The filename of a text file will be passed to your program via the com-mand line. The data contained in that file is to be read into memory (i.e., extracted). Your program will be compiled and run on Eustis using the following commands:

gcc -o etl hw1etl.c

./etl inputFile

It is entirely possible that the input file either does not exist or is not where it is supposed to be. In such an event, your program should print an error message to STDERR that indicates which file is missing, then your program should exit safely. Use the following format for your error message (fileName should display the actual name of the missing file):

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The input file is in CSV (comma separated values) format where each line contains the data for one airport and the fields are as printed below. Note that these fields vary in size and content. Some fields may even be empty. Also note that the data for some of the fields are a melange of types. Specifically, the FAA Site Number and both latitude and longitude contain numbers, punctuation, and text.

For this assignment, treat all input data as character data.

Table 1: Airports Data Fields

 Field Title Description Size FAA Site Number Contains leading digits followed Leading  digits  followed  by  a by a decimal point and short text decimal point and zero to two digits and a letter Loc ID The airport’s short name,  i.e. 4 characters MCO for Orlando Airport Name The airport’s full name, i.e. Or- 50 characters lando International Associated City The nearest city 50 characters State State 2 characters Region FAA Region 3 characters ADO Airline Dispatch Office 3 characters Use Public or Private 2 characters Latitude DD-MM-ss.ssssDirection Degrees, minutes, seconds. Di- rection is either N,S,E or W. Treated as a string (for now). Longitude See Latitude above. ditto Airport Ownership Public or Private 2 characters Part 139 FAA Regulation No data NPIAS Service Level National Plan Integrated Airport 50 characters Systems Descriptor NPIAS Hub Type Intentionally left blank n/a Airport Control Tower Y/N one character Fuel Fuel types available up to 6 characters Other Services Collections of tag indicating IN- 12 characters STRuction, etc. Based Aircraft Total Number  of  aircraft  (may  be Integer number blank) Total Operations Takeoffs/Landings/etc (may be Integer number blank)

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1.2 Transformation

The second part of ETL is transformation. A list of comma separated values is convenient for text files, but it is far less convenient in memory. Once the data for a single airport has been read into a buffer, you will need to parse the buffer based on the commas between the data fields. The parsed data will then be used to populate a structure of the type struct airPdata (i.e. the data has been transformed from CSV to a data structure). The format of airPdata, shown below, will be defined in airPdata.h. Note that the airPdata structure uses the same names as the input file’s Field Names (See Table 1 on page 2), though not all of the Field Names are used.

typedef struct airPdata{

char *siteNumber; //FAA Site Number

 char *LocID; //Airport’s ‘‘Short Name’’, \textit{e.g.} MCO char *fieldName; //Airport Name char *city; //Associated City char *state; //State

char *latitude; //Latitude

char *longitude; //Longitude

char controlTower;//Control Tower, this is a single character (Y/N) } airPdata;

Remember, some of these fields will be of differing lengths for each airport. When you allocate memory structure’s fields, you can assume that no entry will be longer than 50 characters (plus 1 character for the terminating NULL).

Finally, the third part of ETL is loading. With the data now in an airPdata structure it can be eas-ily accessed by functions and/or other programs (i.e., loaded). For this assignment, you will use pass the airPdata structure to a function ( PrintData(airPdata airport) ) that will print the data to STDOUT (aka the console). Before calling PrintData for the first time, make sure you print a header line that names each column. Specifically, use the following two lines of code:

printf(“%-12s %-11s %-42s %-34s %-3s %-15s %-16s Towernn”, “FAA Site”, “Short Name”, “Airport Name”, “City”, “ST”, “Latitude”, “Longitude”);

printf(“%-12s %-11s %-42s %-34s %-3s %-15s %-16s =====nn”, “========”, “==========”, “============”, “====”, “==”, “========”, “=========”);

The “-” preceding each of the format specifiers left-justifies the printed values, while the numbers in-dicate the width of the printed field. Your data should be left-justified as well and should use widths that are identical to those in the header line. It is your choice whether you want to populate one airPdata structure and then print it, or to populate an array of airPdata structures and then print each of them. If you choose to populate and print one at a time, be sure to free any allocated memory before reallocating for the same variable. If you choose to read in all of the airports before printing them, you will have an easier time modifying your HW1 code when it comes time for HW3 and will only need to free the memory when you are done. Again, the choice is yours. An example of what the output should look like is shown on the next page.

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 FAA Site Short Name Airport Name City ST Latitude Longitude Tower ======== ========== ============ ==== == ======== ========= ===== 03406.20*H   2FD7 AIR ORLANDO ORLANDO FL 28-26-08.0210N 081-28-23.2590W N 03406.31*H   3FD5 ARNOLD PALMER HOSPITAL ORLANDO FL 28-31-21.0090N 081-22-49.2520W N 03406.36*H   2FL5 BROOKSVILLE INTL AIRWAYS- INC ORLANDO FL 28-25-26.0000N 081-27-35.0000W N 03406.24*H   FD99 DR P PHILLIPS HOSPITAL ORLANDO FL 28-25-43.0220N 081-28-38.2590W N 03408.*A ORL EXECUTIVE ORLANDO FL 28-32-43.7000N 081-19-58.5000W Y 03406.11*H   37FA FLORIDA HOSPITAL ORLANDO FL 28-34-32.0020N 081-22-06.2490W N 03406.22*H   FD36 FLORIDA HOSPITAL EAST ORLANDO ORLANDO FL 28-32-26.7000N 081-16-51.0000W N 03406.40*H   FL76 HELI-PARTNERS I-DRIVE ORLANDO FL 27-23-04.0000N 081-29-07.0000W N 03406.39*H   97FD HELICOPTERS INTL ORLANDO FL 28-27-51.8300N 081-27-35.8800W N 03407.2*A ISM KISSIMMEE GATEWAY ORLANDO FL 28-17-23.3000N 081-26-13.5000W Y 03406.*C 91FL LAKE CONWAY NORTH ORLANDO FL 28-28-45.0140N 081-22-03.2510W N 03406.33*C   89FL LAKE HIAWASSEE ORLANDO FL 28-31-45.0100N 081-28-51.2600W N 03407.15*A   54FD LM-ETS ORLANDO FL 28-22-03.0000N 081-04-34.0000W N 03407.09*H   82FD LOCKHEED MARTIN ORLANDO FL 28-26-48.4900N 081-27-03.6900W N 03406.18*H   32FL MEYER ORLANDO FL 28-30-05.0120N 081-26-39.2560W N 03408.4*H 27FA ORANGE COUNTY SHERIFF’S OFFICE ORLANDO FL 28-30-27.0110N 081-24-48.2540W N 03407.*A MCO ORLANDO INTL ORLANDO FL 28-25-45.8000N 081-18-32.4000W Y 03406.21*H   FD28 ORLANDO RGNL MEDICAL CENTER ORLANDO FL 28-31-31.0090N 081-22-37.2510W N 03407.1*A SFB ORLANDO SANFORD INTL ORLANDO FL 28-46-37.1000N 081-14-05.7000W Y 03406.29*H   7FA5 PREMIUM ORLANDO FL 28-23-21.0000N 081-29-19.0000W N 03406.113*H  26FA PRINCETON HOSPITAL ORLANDO FL 28-34-06.0040N 081-26-02.2550W N 03406.14*A   01FA RYBOLT RANCH ORLANDO FL 28-35-21.9970N 081-08-39.2290W N 03406.38*C   12FL TIMBERLACHEN ORLANDO FL 28-35-34.0000N 081-24-14.0000W N 03406.34*H   0FL7 WKMG-TV ORLANDO FL 28-35-38.7000N 081-25-11.6000W N 03406.3*H 13FD YELVINGTON ORLANDO FL 28-31-07.0090N 081-22-59.2520W N

• Required Functions

void printData(airPdata airport);

Description: Prints the data for a given airport, using the same format as the provided header line.

Input: A pointer to an airPdata structure.

Special Cases: If a NULL pointer is passed to this function, print an error message to STDERR and return from the function without printing anything to STDOUT.

Returns: Nothing

• Testing

There are several possible approaches for parsing the input data. Regardless of the approach you use, make sure to test your code on Eustis even if it works perfectly on your machine . If your code does not compile on Eustis you will receive a 0 for the assignment. There will be four (4) files provided for testing your code, they are as follows.

 Table 2: Test Files Filename Description twolines.csv Two  lines  of  test  data,  where  one line consists of lower case letters, one unique letter per field, the other line will consist of uppercase letters. orlando5.csv Five lines of Orlando airport data. orlando.csv All 26 of the Orlando airports. florida.csv All 877 of Florida’s airports.

The expected output for these test cases will also be provided. To compare your output to the expected output you will first need to redirect STDOUT to a text file. Run your code with the following command (substitute the actual name of the input CSV file):

./etl inputFile > output.txt

The run the following command (substitute the actual name of the expected output file):

diff output.txt expectedOutputFile

If there are any differences the relevant lines will be displayed (note that even a single extra space will cause a difference to be detected). If nothing is displayed, then congratulations the outputs match! For each of the four (4) test cases, your code will need to output to STDOUT text that is identical to the corresponding expectedOutputFile. If your code crashes for a particular test case, you will not get credit for that case.

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Scoring will be based on the following rubric:

 Table 3: Grading Rubric Deduction Description -100 Code does not compile on Eustis -100 Code does not accept the input file- name from the command line – 15 Code does not show an error message and/or does not exit safely when there is a file I/O problem – 20 crashed on twolines.csv, or output does not match – 20 crashed on orlando5.csv, or output does not match – 20 crashed on orlando.csv, or output does not match – 20 crashed on florida.csv, or output does not match – 5 Missing the academic honesty affirma- tion (See Submission Instructions)

• Submission Instructions

The assignment shall be submitted via WebCourses. There should only be one file in the submission.

The main source file named hw1etl.c (The submitted file should be all lowercase, but to capitalized version is printed here to avoid any spelling errors from misreading the filename: HW1ETL.C. Again, your filename should be all lowercase.)

The header file airPdata.h should not be submitted. The graders will already have it. Do not rely on a modified copy of airPdata.h, and do not hard code the airPdata structure in your main source file. Doing so will cause your code to not compile.

Include a comment at the top of your main source file that contains the following statement (substitute your name and NID) – “I [name] ([NID]) affirm that this program is entirely my own work and that I have neither developed my code together with any another person, nor copied any code from any other person, nor permitted my code to be copied or otherwise used by any other person, nor have I copied, modified, or otherwise used program code that I have found in any external source, including but not limited to, online sources. I acknowledge that any violation of the above terms will be treated as academic dishonesty.”

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