Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis
This chapter presents, interprets, and analyses the data gathered from the hosted survey questionnaires conducted by the researcher through a web site. The general population for this study is composed of 30 respondents who are randomly selected and willingly answered the online survey questionnaire. Basically, the findings of the study are presented in different sections.
Part One presents the profile of the respondents of this study that constitute the survey method. It is important to know the profile of respondents for the purposes of accuracy and validity in relation to their responses to survey questions. It is assumed that the attributes of the respondents influence their behaviour and answers on the survey questions.
On the other hand, Part Two discusses the results of the research questions asked in the survey questionnaire and the research hypotheses in relation to the main subject of the study – what are the different factors that influence their behaviour and intentions in purchasing books through online means? The discussion is subdivided into sub-sections that provide information about the question being probed. The hypotheses of this study serve as the sections as there are also some related facts to be presented to support such.
Part 1. Personal Particulars
Considering that the socio-demographic profiles of the respondents is among the affecting variables of the study, this section presents, interprets, and analyses the role of gender, age, educational background, occupation, and income level.
Table 1. Gender
The table above presents that twenty (66.67%) out of 30 respondents belongs to the females while nine (30%) are males. One (3.33%) of the respondents is unable to identify his/her gender. However, it did not affect the result significantly.
Table 2. Age group
Nine (30%) respondents who belong to 33-37 age group said that they have access to the internet. One (3.33%) from 23-27, eight (26.67%) from 28-32, six (20%) for both 28-42 and 43-above age groups comprised the rest.
Table 3. Highest Educational Attainment
|Highest Educational Level||Frequency||Percentage|
In terms of highest educational attainment, the following results are obtained from the 30 total respondents: sixteen (53.34%) are postgraduate, ten (33.33%) are undergraduate, and four (13.33%) completed secondary.
Table 4. Occupation
According to the table, twenty-two (73.34%) of the total respondents are salaried-employed while seven (23.33%) are self-employed and one (3.33%) is unemployed.
Table 5. Average Monthly Income
|Average Monthly Income||Frequency||Percentage|
The table reports that sixteen (53.34%) respondents have HKD10,001-20,000 average monthly income. The others are as follows: eleven (36.67%) earn HKD20,001-40,000, one (3.33%) for each remaining brackets – under HKD8,000, HKD8,001-10,000 and over HKD40,000.
Part 2a. The Results of the Research Questions Asked in the Survey Questionnaire
- 28 respondents have access to the internet or the WWW in the past six (6) months while two (2) says otherwise.
Do you access the internet or the WWW in the past six (6) months?
- The 28 respondents who have access to the internet for the past six (6) months stated that they are using the internet or WWW for more than two (2) years.
- 19 respondents reported that they visit the internet everyday, three (3) for 1-3 times per week, and six (6) for 4-6 times per week.
- 10 respondents said that they spend less than one (1) hour in browsing the internet. Other 11 respondents spend 1-2 hours, three (3) for 3-5 hours, and four (4) for over five (5) hours.
- From the various reasons on why people browse the internet, 10 individuals selected three reasons, 9 for one reason, one for 5 reasons, seven for two reasons and 3 for no reason at all.
|Number of selected reason||Frequency||Percentage|
On the provided reasons, the search of information (e.g. job search) ranked first followed by entertainment (e.g. booking cinema ticket), online purchasing, hotel reservation, and other ranked second, third, fourth, and fifth respectively.
- Search information (e.g. job search) – 26
- Entertainment (e.g. booking cinema ticket) – 15
- Online purchasing – 9
- Hotel reservation – 3
- Others – 5
- 7 people said yes that they made online book purchase while 23 said no.
Have you ever made any purchase of book via the internet?
- For respondents who answered no, there are several reason presented on why they do not purchase book online. From the variety of reasons, nine selected 1 reason, 6 selected2 reasons, 5 selected 3 reasons, 2 selected 4 reasons, one selected 5 reasons, and 7 made no selection.
The following reasons corresponded to:
- worry about the security of information (e.g. credit card) – 14
- worry about the misuse and exposure of personal particulars – 8
- worry about the problem of return policy and products – 10
- high expenses of shipment cost – 8
- time lag between ordering and receiving products – 4
- others – 5
- For yes respondents, three (3) respondents reported that they engaged in online purchase for their selves and family last month. Other three (3) said they purchase online for the last 6 and one (1) for 12 months respectively.
- For the seven (7) people who purchased books online, they like to browse the following websites:
They are also asked to select more than one website. The following are Four (4) selected one item and three (3) selected 2 items and among the preferred site, Amazon.com top the list. The remaining 23 respondents made no selection because they do not engage in online book purchasing.
- The following are the reasons on why the YES respondents purchased online:
- More of choice of book categories and language
- Lower cost
- Convenience and time saving
- Getting a book fast than the local bookstores
- Web site promotions and offers
- Comments of other editors, friends or family relative
They are asked to select more than one reason and the following results are obtained: three (3) selected one item, three (3) selected two items, and one (1) selected three items. The rest made no selection. The main reason found was because of convenience and time saving followed by more choice of book categories and language, lower cost, and website promotions and offers.
- In terms of number of books purchased online, three (3) respondents purchased one book only while four (4) bought two-four books.
- In terms of amount spent, four (4) respondents said that they spent under HKD500 for online book purchasing. Two (2) spent HKD501-1,000 and one (1) spent HKD1,001-1,500.
- The following method were used as payment method:
- credit card (i.e. visa/master) – 5
- PayPal – 2
- bank Transfer – 0
- cash on delivery (COD) – 1
- others – 0
Among these payment method, the survey result revealed that most of the people who purchase online use credit card (like Visa/Master), through PayPal, and cash on delivery (COD).
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION
1 – very dissatisfied and 7 – very satisfied
The following results were exclusively focused on the respondents who made online book purchase. On the scale of 1 (very dissatisfied) up to 7 (very satisfied), the level of satisfaction is measured.
- Overall, to what extent are you satisfied with your online purchase the book experience?
- To what extent are you satisfied with the delivery service the online purchasing experience?
- To what extent are you satisfied with the web site design of online purchasing experience?
- To what extent are you satisfied with the quality of books of online purchasing experience?
- To what extent are you satisfied with the security information of online purchasing experience?
- To what extent are you satisfied with the payment information of online purchasing experience?
- To what extent are you satisfied with the shipping cost of online purchasing experience?
The following important details are to be considered in the next part of analysis and discussion:
- According to the result of the survey conducted, only seven (7) out of the 30 respondents have made an online book purchasing.
- Four (4) are males while three (3) are females.
- Two (2) each for the following age groups: 28-32, 33-37, and 42 above. Only one (1) belongs to 38-42 while no one belongs to 18-22 age groups.
- Both undergraduate and postgraduate educational levels have three (3) respondents while only one (1) completed secondary.
- Four respondents are salaried-employed while three (3) are self-employed.
- The average income of three (3) respondents is HKD10,001-20,00 while two (2) earns HKD20,001-40,000 and one (1) earns over HKD40,001.
Part 2b. The Research Hypotheses Interpretation using Survey Questionnaire Results
H1: Young online users have a greater positive attitude and experience towards the use of internet use and are more experienced in browsing over various websites for information.
H2: Online users with greater positive attitude and experience towards the internet are more likely buy goods, like books, via online means.
H3: Positive online purchasing experience increases the willingness of the consumers to shop online as well as make additional purchased from similar online retailers.
H4: The lower price of goods offered online increases the willingness of the consumers to purchase items, such as books, through the internet.
H5: The e-retailers’ promotional packages increase the willingness and intent of the consumers to purchase or repurchases books online.
H6: The effort of the online retailers to ensure the protection of the online consumers against violation of privacy of personal information theft increases the intent of the customer to purchase books via the internet.
H7: Customers are more likely to purchase books through online means as retail websites provide a wider product profile.
H8: Attitude towards online shopping is directly influence by family members and relatives who are regular online shoppers and have positive experience in buying books online.
H9: The efficacy of the e-retailers’ logistics system directly influence consumers intent to purchase books online.